chapter 11 pricing strategies. new product pricing strategies market skimming setting a high...
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- Chapter 11 Pricing Strategies
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- New Product Pricing Strategies Market Skimming Setting a High Price for a New Product to Skim Maximum Revenues layer by layer from the segments willing to pay the high price. Results in Fewer, But More Profitable Sales. Market Skimming Setting a High Price for a New Product to Skim Maximum Revenues layer by layer from the segments willing to pay the high price. Results in Fewer, But More Profitable Sales. Use Under These Conditions: Products Quality and Image Must Support Its Higher Price. Costs Cant be so High that They Cancel the Advantage of Charging More. Competitors Shouldnt be Able to Enter Market Easily and Undercut the High Price.
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- New Product Pricing Strategies Market Penetration Setting a Low Price for a New Product in Order to Penetrate the Market Quickly and Deeply. Attract a Large Number of Buyers and Win a Larger Market Share. Market Penetration Setting a Low Price for a New Product in Order to Penetrate the Market Quickly and Deeply. Attract a Large Number of Buyers and Win a Larger Market Share. Use Under These Conditions: Market Must be Highly Price-Sensitive so that a Low Price Produces More Market Growth. Production/ Distribution Costs Must Fall as Sales Volume Increases. Must Keep Out Competition & Maintain Its Low Price Position or Benefits May Only be Temporary.
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- Product Mix Pricing Strategies StrategyDescription Product Line Pricing Setting price steps between line items Optional Product Pricing Pricing optional or accessory products Captive Product Pricing Pricing products that must be used with the main product By-Product PricingPricing low value by-products to get rid of them Product Bundle Pricing Pricing bundles of products sold together
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- Product Mix-Pricing Strategies: Product Line Pricing Involves setting price steps between various products in a product line based on: Cost differences between products, Customer evaluations of different features, and competitors prices.
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- Product Mix- Pricing Strategies Optional-Product Pricing optional or accessory products sold with the main product. Decide which to offer with base price and which to provide as option Captive-Product Pricing products that must be used with the main product. Producers often have the base item marked low but the supplies marked high The essence is to capture the customer
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- Product Mix- Pricing Strategies By-Product Pricing low-value by-products to get rid of them and make the main products price more competitive. Applicable when By products have little or no value Are expensive to store and dispose Companies should settle for a price that covers the cost Product-Bundling Combining several products and offering the bundle at a reduced price.
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- Price-Adjustment Strategies StrategyDescription Discount & Allowance PricingReducing prices to reward customer responses eg. Pay early or at a time, or promote Segmented PricingAdjusting prices to allow for differences in segments Psychological PricingAdjusting prices for psychological effect Promotional PricingTemporally reduce prices for short run sales Geographic PricingAdjust for geographic location Dynamic PricingAdjusting prices to continuously meet the needs of individual customers & situations International PricingAdjusting Prices for International Markets
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- Discount & Allowance Pricing Cash Discount: on time Quantity Discount: on quantity Functional Discount: on performance Seasonal Discount: to balance seasonal demands
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- Segmented Pricing Difference in price is not because of difference in cost. To be effective The market must be segmentable. Segments must have different degrees of demand. The prices should reflect the customers perceived value. Customer SegmentLocation pricing Product-FormTime Pricing
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- Customer segment Segmented Pricing
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- Location pricing Product form
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- Segmented Pricing Time pricing
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- Psychological Pricing Many consumers use price to judge quality. When consumers cannot judge due to lack of information or skill, price becomes an indicator of quality. Reference Prices Product placement and visibility Sale signs Prices ending in 99 Signpost Pricing Price Matching guarantees
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- Psychological Pricing Considers the psychology of prices and not simply the economics. Odd pricing
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- Promotional Pricing Companies temporarily price their products below list price to create urgency and excitement. If used too frequently, the brand loses the novelty and also, no one would buy them at regular price anymore. However, since its the easiest thing to do, to increase short run sales, it is quite addictive.
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- Special-Event Pricing Cash Rebates Low-Interest Financing Longer Warranties Free Maintenance Psychological Discounting Loss Leaders Promotional Pricing
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- Geographical Pricing Uniform Delivered Pricing: Easier to manage and advertise nationally. Zone Pricing: Rather than individual city or town, pricing is done on a zone basis. Basing-Point Pricing: use another city as base. Freight Absorption Pricing: Absorb all or part of the cost to penetrate the market.
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- Dynamic Pricing Adjust prices continuously to meet the characteristics and needs of customers. Particularly effective for internet marketing. Opposite of maintaining fixed price policies.
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- International Pricing Uniform worldwide price Most companies have to change their pricing PEST, infrastructure, laws Consumer perceptions Product life cycle Costs-resulting in price escalation
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- Price Changes Initiating Price cuts Excess capacity Falling demand Dominate market through lower costs Initiating Price Increases Cost inflation Over-demand Must be supported by communication Use low visibility price moves However, whenever possible, company should look for other alternatives without raising prices
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