Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry. 11 | 2 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d What is nuclear chemistry? The study of reactions that result from changes in the nucleus.

Download Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry. 11 | 2 Nuclear Chemistry cont’d What is nuclear chemistry? The study of reactions that result from changes in the nucleus.

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Chapter 11 Nuclear Chemistry Slide 2 11 | 2 Nuclear Chemistry contd What is nuclear chemistry? The study of reactions that result from changes in the nucleus of an atom Slide 3 11 | 3 Nuclear Chemistry contd In nuclear chemistry specific atoms are called .. nuclides. Nuclides are identified by two types of notation: 1.Nuclear Symbol 2.Element name-mass number Slide 4 11 | 4 Nuclear Chemistry contd This is an example of a nuclear symbol. Slide 5 11 | 5 Nuclear Chemistry contd The nuclear symbol can also be expressed as shown. Slide 6 11 | 6 Nuclear Chemistry contd Practice Questions Write two notations for a nuclide that has: a.41 protons, 41 electrons, 55 neutrons b.11 protons, 11 electrons, 14 neutrons Slide 7 11 | 7 Radioactive Decay Slide 8 11 | 8 Nuclides are either stable or unstable Unstable nuclides (or radionuclides) undergo radioactive decay. Slide 9 11 | 9 Radioactive decay is a nuclear reaction that emits radiation while changing the nuclide of one element into another. Slide 10 11 | 10 For example; the silver- 113 radionuclide decays to cadmium- 113 with the emission of a beta particle and gamma rays. Slide 11 11 | 11 Types of Natural Radioactive Emission Slide 12 11 | 12 Three major types of natural radioactive emission: Beta particle (an electron from the nucleus) Alpha particle( the nucleus of a He atom) Gamma rays (energy similar to x-rays ) Slide 13 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 13 Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 14 Lets look at Half-life Slide 15 11 | 15 Nuclear Chemistry contd The half-life of a radionuclide is the time required for of it to decay. Half-life is frequently given the symbol t 1/2. Slide 16 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 16 Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 17 Half-life Decay Graph for 80 mg of Iodine-131 Slide 18 Equation to Determine Final Mass of a Radionuclide Slide 19 Practice Problem I : How many grams of cobalt -60 is left when 2.0 g of it decays for 15.9 years? It t 1/2 is 5.3 years. Slide 20 Practice Problem II : What is the t 1/2 for the radionuclide potassium-45 ( a beta emitter) if a 50mg sample decays to 5.3 years. Slide 21 Lets look at the Biochemical Effects of Radiation Slide 22 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 22 Nuclear Chemistry contd Degree of Penetration by BAG Radiation Slide 23 11 | 23 NPenuclear Chemistry contd Alpha.. No damage to skin.. Why? ( greatest damage when ingested Why?) Beta .. Severe burns to skin Why? Gamma.. Severe damage to skin and internal organs.. Why? Slide 24 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 24 Slide 25 This is the last powerpoint slide in this chapter Slide 26 This is the last powerpoint slide in this chapter Slide 27 Fig. 11.4 Ernest Rutherford was the first person to carry out a bombardment reaction. Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 28 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 28 Table 11.2 Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 29 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 29 CC 11.1 Tobacco Radioactivity Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 30 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 30 Fig. 11.6 In the U-238 decay series, each nuclide is unstable except Pb- 206. Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 31 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 31 Fig. 11.7 Ion pair formation. Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 32 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 32 CC 11.2 Irridated and nonradiated mushrooms Nuclear Chemistry contd Peticolas/Megna/Fundamental Photographs, NYC Slide 33 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 33 Fig. 11.9 Film badges are used to determine a persons exposure to radiation. Nuclear Chemistry contd Doug Plummer/Photo Researchers Slide 34 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 34 Fig. 11.10 Radiation passing through a Geiger counter ionizes one or more gas atoms, producing ion pairs. Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 35 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 35 Fig. 11.11 Components of the estimated annual radiation of an average American. Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 36 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 36 CC. 11.3 A commercially available kit to test for radon gas in the home. Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 37 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 37 Fig. 11.12 Brain scans are obtained using radioactive technetium-99, a laboratory-produced radionuclide. Nuclear Chemistry contd Science Photo/Custom Medical Stock Photo Slide 38 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 38 Table 11.4 Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 39 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 39 Table 11.5 Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 40 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 40 Fig. 11.13 Cobalt-60 is used as a source of gamma radiation in radiation therapy. Nuclear Chemistry contd Yoav Levy/Phototake Slide 41 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 41 Fig. 11.14 A fission chain reaction is caused by further reaction of the neutrons produced during fission. Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 42 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 42 Fig. 11.15 Enormous amounts of energy are released in the explosion of a nuclear fission bomb. Nuclear Chemistry contd Bettmann/CORBIS Slide 43 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 43 Fig. 11.16 The cooling tower at the Trojan nuclear power plant dominates the landscape. The nuclear reactor is housed in the dome- shaped enclosure. Nuclear Chemistry contd Albert J. Copley/Visuals Unlimited Slide 44 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 44 Fig. 11.17 The process of nuclear fusion maintains the interior of the sun at the temperature of approximately 15 million degrees. Nuclear Chemistry contd NASA Slide 45 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 45 Nuclear Chemistry contd CAG 11.2 Slide 46 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 46 CO 11.1 Associated with brain- scan technology is the use of small amounts of radioactive substances. Nuclear Chemistry contd PhotoDisc Slide 47 Fig. 11.1 Marie Curie, one of the pioneers in the study of radioactivity, is the first person to have been awarded two Nobel Prizes for scientific work. Nuclear Chemistry contd Slide 48 Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.11 | 48 Table 11.6 Nuclear Chemistry contd

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