Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry - 10–1 Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry Solutions to In-Chapter Problems…

Download Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry - 10–1 Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry Solutions to In-Chapter Problems…

Post on 16-Jul-2018

215 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

TRANSCRIPT

  • Chapter 101

    Chapter 10 Nuclear Chemistry Solutions to In-Chapter Problems 10.1 Refer to Example 10.1 to answer the question.

    The atomic number (Z) = the number of protons. The mass number (A) = the number of protons + the number of neutrons. Isotopes are written with the mass number to the upper left of the element symbol and the

    atomic number to the lower left of the element symbol.

    Atomic Number Mass Number Number of

    Protons Number of Neutrons

    Isotope Symbol

    Cobalt-59 27 59 27 32 27Co59

    Cobalt-60 27 60 27 33 27Co

    60

    10.2 Fill in the table as in Example 10.1, using the rules in Answer 10.1.

    Atomic Number Mass Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons

    Sr3885a.

    38 85 38 47

    Ga3167b.

    31 67 31 36 Selenium-75c. 34 75 34 41

    10.3 An particle has no electrons around the nucleus and a +2 charge, whereas a helium atom has

    two electrons around the nucleus and is neutral. 10.4 Use Table 10.1 to identify Q in each of the following symbols.

    Q42Q01 Qa. b. c.0

    +1

    ! particle " particle positron 10.5 Write a balanced nuclear equation as in Example 10.2.

    [1] Write an incomplete equation with the original nucleus on the left and the particle emitted on the right. Radon-222 has an atomic number of 86.

    222 He2

    4 + ?86Rn [2] Calculate the mass number and the atomic number of the newly formed nucleus on the

    right. Radon-222 emits an particle. Mass number: Subtract the mass of an particle (4) to obtain the mass of the new

    nucleus; 222 4 = 218. Atomic number: Subtract the two protons of an particle to obtain the atomic number of

    the new nucleus; 86 2 = 84.

    [3] Use the atomic number to identify the new nucleus and complete the equation.

  • Nuclear Chemistry 102

    From the periodic table, the element with an atomic number of 84 is polonium, Po. Write the mass number and the atomic number with the element symbol to complete the

    equation.

    2He + 84Po222 4 21886Rn

    10.6 Work backwards to write the equation that produces radon-222.

    ?

    22688Ra

    2He + 86Rn2224

    2He + 86Rn2224Mass number = 222 + 4 = 226

    Atomic number = 86 + 2 = 88 10.7 Write the balanced nuclear equation for each isotope as in Example 10.2 or Answer 10.5.

    84Po218 4

    2He + 82Pb214a.

    b. 90Th230

    2He + 88Ra4 226

    c. 99Es252

    2He + 97Bk4 248

    10.8 Write a balanced nuclear equation for the emission of iodine-131 as in Example 10.2.

    [1] Write an incomplete equation with the original nucleus on the left and the particle emitted on the right. Use the identity of the element to determine the atomic number; iodine has an atomic

    number of 53.

    I53131 +e1

    0 ?

    [2] Calculate the mass number and the atomic number of the newly formed nucleus on the

    right. Mass number: Since a particle has no mass, the masses of the new particle and the

    original particle are the same, 131. Atomic number: Since emission converts a neutron into a proton, the new nucleus has

    one more proton than the original nucleus; 53 = 1 + ?. Thus, the new nucleus has an atomic number of 54.

    [3] Use the atomic number to identify the new nucleus and complete the equation.

    From the periodic table, the element with an atomic number of 54 is xenon, Xe. Write the mass number and the atomic number with the element symbol to complete the

    equation.

    I53131 +e1

    0 Xe54131

  • Chapter 103

    10.9 Write a balanced nuclear equation for the emission of each isotope as in Example 10.2 and Answer 10.8.

    F9

    20 +e10 Ne

    1020a.

    Sr3892 +e1

    0 Y3992b.

    c. Cr2455 +e1

    0 Mn2555

    10.10 Write a balanced nuclear equation for positron emission as in Example 10.3. a. [1] Write an incomplete equation with the original nucleus on the left and the particle

    emitted on the right. Use the identity of the element to determine the atomic number; arsenic has an atomic

    number of 33.

    As3374 + ?e+1

    0

    [2] Calculate the mass number and the atomic number of the newly formed nucleus on the

    right. Mass number: Since a + particle has no mass, the masses of the new particle and the

    original particle are the same, 74. Atomic number: Since + emission converts a proton into a neutron, the new nucleus has

    one fewer proton than the original nucleus; 33 1 = 32. Thus, the new nucleus has an atomic number of 32.

    [3] Use the atomic number to identify the new nucleus and complete the equation.

    From the periodic table, the element with an atomic number of 32 is germanium, Ge. Write the mass number and the atomic number with the element symbol to complete the

    equation.

    As3374 +e+1

    0 Ge3274

    b. Use the same steps as in part (a).

    O815 +e+1

    0 N715

    10.11 When and emission occur together, the atomic number increases by one (due to the

    particle), and a ray is released.

    Ir77192 + e1

    0Pt78192 +

    Both ! particles and " rays are emitted.

    "

    10.12 When emission occurs alone, there is no change in the atomic number or the mass number.

    When and emission occur together, the atomic number increases by one (due to the particle), and a ray is released.

  • Nuclear Chemistry 104

    Both ! particles and " rays are emitted.

    40 + "K1940 + e1

    0B511 + " 20Cab.B5

    11

    " emission aloneno change in atomic number or mass number

    Atomic number increases, but no change in the mass number.

    a.

    10.13 To calculate the amount of radioisotope present after the given number of half-lives, multiply the

    initial mass by for each half-life.

    xinitial mass

    12

    x 12

    1.00 g = 0.250 g of phosphorus-32 remains.

    The mass is halved two times.

    a.

    xinitial mass

    12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    1.00 g = 0.0625 g of phosphorus-32 remains.

    The mass is halved four times.

    b.

    xinitial mass

    12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    1.00 g

    = 0.00391 g of phosphorus-32 remains.The mass is halved eight times.

    c. x12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    xinitial mass

    12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    1.00 g

    = 9.54 x 107 g of phosphorus-32 remains.The mass is halved twenty times.

    d. x12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    10.14 To calculate the amount of radioisotope present, first determine the number of half-lives that

    occur in the given amount of time. Then multiply the initial mass by for each half-life to determine the amount present.

    6.0 hours 1 half-life

    6.0 hoursx = 1.0 half-life x

    initial mass

    12

    160. mg = 80. mg of Tc-99ma.

    18.0 hours 1 half-life6.0 hours

    x = 3.0 half-lives xinitial mass

    12

    160. mg = 20.0 mg of Tc-99mb. x 12x 1

    2

    24.0 hours 1 half-life

    6.0 hoursx = 4.0 half-lives x

    initial mass

    12

    160. mg = 10.0 mg of Tc-99mc. x 12x 1

    2x 1

    2

    2 days 1 half-life

    6.0 hoursx = 8 half-lives

    xinitial mass

    12

    160. mg = 0.6 mg of Tc-99m

    d.

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    24 hours1 day

    x

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

  • Chapter 105

    10.15 If an artifact has 1/8 of the amount of C-14 compared to living organisms, it has decayed by three half-lives ( ).

    1 half-life

    5,730 yearsx =3 half-lives 17,200 years

    10.16 Use the amount of radioactivity (mCi/mL) as a conversion factor to convert the dose of radioactivity from millicuries to a volume in milliliters.

    x =110 mCi dose 1 mL25 mCi

    Millicuries cancel.

    4.4 mLAnswer

    mCimL conversion factor

    10.17 Use the conversion factor given to convert mrem to rem.

    x =200 mrem 1 rem1000 mrem

    0.2 rema. x =0.014 rem1 rem

    1000 mrem 14 mremb.

    larger dose 10.18 Calculate the number of half-lives that pass in nine days.

    9 days 1 half-life3 days

    x = 3 half-lives 12

    =x 12

    x 12

    18

    10.19

    b. Sm62153 + e10Eu63

    153

    a. Sm62153

    62 protons, 62 electrons153 62 = 91 neutrons

    One ! particleis emitted.

    Atomic number increases.

    c. xinitial activity

    12

    150 mCi = 9.4 mCix 12x 1

    2x 1

    2

    10.20 The emission of a positron decreases the atomic number by one, but the mass number stays the

    same. Use Example 10.3.

    N713 +e+1

    0 C613

  • Nuclear Chemistry 106

    10.21 Nuclear fission splits an atom into two lighter nuclei. Write the equation with the information given, and then balance the equation.

    92U235 + 3 0n51Sb +

    133 1+ 0n1

    235 + 3 0n51Sb +133

    41Nb100 1+ 0n

    1

    ?

    The atomic number must be 41 = niobium:92 = 51 + X

    The mass number of niobium must be 100:235 + 1 = 133 + X + 3, X = 100

    92U 10.22 Balance each reaction.

    + +12 H1

    1 H e+10a. 1

    1 H b. 1

    1 H + 12 H 2

    3 He c. 1

    1 H + 23 He 2

    4 He + e+10

    Solutions to End-of-Chapter Problems 10.23 Refer to Example 10.1 to answer the question.

    The atomic number (Z) = the number of protons. The mass number (A) = the number of protons + the number of neutrons. Isotopes are written with the mass number to the upper left of the element symbol and the

    atomic number to the lower left of the element symbol.

    a. Atomic Number b. Number of Protons

    c. Number of Neutrons d. Mass Number Isotope Symbol

    Fluorine-18 9 9 9 18 F918

    Fluorine-19 9 9 10 19 F9

    19

    10.24 Refer to Example 10.1 to answer the question.

    The atomic number (Z) = the number of protons. The mass number (A) = the number of protons (Z) + the number of neutrons. Isotopes are written with the mass number to the upper left of the element symbol and the

    atomic number to the lower left of the element symbol.

    a. Atomic number b. Number of protons

    c. Number of neutrons d. Mass number Isotope symbol

    Nitrogen-13 7 7 6 13 N713

    Nitrogen-14 7 7 7 14 N7

    14

  • Chapter 107

    10.25 Fill in the table using Example 10.1 and the definitions in Answer 10.23.

    Atomic Number Mass Number Number of

    Protons Number of Neutrons

    Isotope Symbol

    a. Chromium-51 24 51 24 27 Cr2451

    b. Palladium-103 46 103 46 57 Pd46103 c. Potassium-42 19 42 19 23 K1942 d. Xenon-133 54 133 54 79 Xe54133 10.26 Fill in the table using Example 10.1 and the definitions in Answer 10.23.

    Atomic number Mass number Number of

    protons Number of neutrons Isotope symbol

    a. Sodium-24 11 24 11 13 Na1124

    b. Strontrium-89 38 89 38 51 Sr3889 c. Iron-59 26 59 26 33 Fe2659 d. Samarium-153 62 153 62 91 Sm62153 10.27 Use the definitions in Section 10.1B and Table 10.1 to fill in the table.

    Change in Mass Change in Charge a. particle 4 2 b. particle 0 +1 c. ray 0 0 d. positron 0 1

    10.28 a. rays have the highest speed and particles have the slowest speed. b. rays have the highest penetrating power and particles have the lowest penetrating power.

    c. Lab coats and gloves should be worn when working with substances that give off particles. Heavy lab coats and gloves must be worn when working with substances that give off particles. A lead shield is required to protect those working with substances that give off rays.

    10.29 Use the definitions in Section 10.1B and Table 10.1 to fill in the table.

    Mass Charge a. 4 +2 b. n 1 0 c. 0 0 d. 0 1

  • Nuclear Chemistry 108

    10.30 Use the definitions in Section 10.1B and Table 10.1 to fill in the table.

    Mass Charge e1

    0a. 0 1

    e+1 0b.

    0 +1

    He 2 4c.

    4 +2

    !d. + 0 +1

    10.31 Complete the equation. The white circles represent neutrons and the black circles represent

    protons.

    +positron

    7N13

    6C13 + e+1

    0

    seven protons =atomic number

    of nitrogen

    six protons =atomic number

    of carbon

    10.32 Complete the equation. The white circles represent neutrons and the black circles represent

    protons.

    +

    5B11

    3Li 7 + He 2

    4

    five protons =atomic number

    of boron

    three protons =atomic number

    of lithium

    10.33 Complete the nuclear equation as in Example 10.2.

    He24

    e10Fe26

    59 +

    Pt78190 +

    e+10Hg80

    178 +a.

    b.

    c.Co2759

    Os76186

    Au79178

    no change no change

    + 1 proton26 + 1 = 27

    78 2 = 76

    190 4 = 186

    1 proton80 1 = 79

  • Chapter 109

    10.34 Complete the nuclear equation as in Example 10.2.

    He24

    e+10Rb37

    77 +

    No102251 +

    e10Cu29

    66 +a.

    b.

    c.Kr3677

    Fm100247

    Zn30 66

    no change no change

    1 proton37 1 = 36

    102 2 = 100

    251 4 = 247

    + 1 proton29 + 1 = 30

    10.35 Complete each nuclear equation.

    He24Y39

    90 +

    + e+10

    +a.

    b.

    c.Zr4090

    Pr59135

    Bi83210e1

    0

    Nd60135

    Tl81206

    + 1 proton ! particle

    Work backwards: 59 + 1 = 60

    positron

    83 2 = 81

    210 4 = 206

    " particle

    10.36 Complete each nuclear equation.

    He24Sr38

    90 +

    + e+10

    +a.

    b.

    c.Y3990

    Si14 29

    Po84214e1

    0

    P15 29

    Pb82210

    + 1 proton

    Work backwards: 39 1 = 38

    positron

    84 2 = 82

    214 4 = 210

    ! particle" particle

    10.37 Write the two nuclear equations for the decay of bismuth-214.

    ! particle " particle

    + e10 He2

    4+Bi83214 Tl81

    210Bi83214 Po84

    214

  • Nuclear Chemistry 1010

    10.38 Write the two chemical equations for the formation of lead-210.

    ! particle" particle

    + e10 He2

    4+Po84214 Pb82

    210Tl81210 Pb82

    210

    10.39 Write the chemical equation for each nuclear reaction.

    ! particle

    " particle

    90Th232 2He + 88Ra4 228a.

    + e10Na11

    25 Mg1225b.

    c. e+10I53118Xe54118 +

    d. 96Cm243 2He + 94Pu4 239

    " particle

    positron

    10.40 Write the chemical equation for each nuclear reaction.

    ! particle

    " particle

    16S 35

    2He4

    a.

    +

    e10

    Th90225 Ra88

    221b.

    c. e+10Ru44 93Rh45

    93 +

    d. 47Ag114 1e + 48Cd 0 114

    ! particle

    positron

    + Cl1735

    10.41

    initial sample A16 black spheres 4 black spheres

    16 is halved twice.

    x 12

    x 12

    16 = 4

    2 half-lives 10.42

    initial sample A8 black spheres 1 black spheres

    8 is halved 3 times.

    x 12

    x 12

    8 = 1

    3 half-lives

    x 12

    3 x 10 minutes = 30 minutes

  • Chapter 1011

    10.43 Determine the number of half-lives that have passed in 12 days to determine the length of each half-life.

    x

    initial mass

    12

    x 12

    x 12

    2.4 g = 0.30 g

    The mass is halved three times.

    12 days3 half-lives

    = 4.0 days in one half-life

    10.44 Determine the number of half-lives that have passed in 22 minutes to determine the length of each

    half-life.

    xinitial mass

    12

    x 12

    0.36 g = 0.090 g

    The mass is halved two times.

    22 minutes2 half-lives

    = 11 minutes in one half-life

    10.45 To calculate the amount of iodine present after the given number of half-lives, multiply the initial

    mass by for each half-life. The total mass is always 64 mg.

    xinitial mass

    12

    64 mg = 32 mg of iodine-131 64 32 = 32 mg of xenon-131

    a. 8.0 days = 1 half-life

    xinitial mass

    12

    64 mg = 16 mg of iodine-131 64 16 = 48 mg of xenon-131

    b. 16 days = 2 half-lives

    x 12

    xinitial mass

    12

    64 mg = 8.0 mg of iodine-131 64 8.0 = 56 mg of xenon-131

    c. 24 days = 3 half-lives

    x 12

    x 12

    xinitial mass

    12

    64 mg = 4.0 mg of iodine-131 64 4.0 = 60. mg of xenon-131

    d. 32 days = 4 half-lives

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    10.46 To calculate the amount of phosphorus present after the given number of half-lives, multiply the

    initial mass by for each half-life. The total mass is always 124 mg.

    x

    initial mass

    12

    124 mg = 62.0 mg of phosphorus-32 124 62.0 = 62 mg of sulfur-32

    a. 14 days = 1 half-life

    xinitial mass

    12

    124 mg = 31.0 mg of phosphorus-32 124 31.0 = 93 mg of sulfur-32

    b. 28 days = 2 half-lives

    x 12

  • Nuclear Chemistry 1012

    xinitial mass

    12

    124 mg = 15.5 mg of phosphorus-32 124 15.5 = 109 mg of sulfur-32

    c. 42 days = 3 half-lives

    x 12

    x 12

    xinitial mass

    12

    124 mg = 7.75 mg of phosphorus-32 124 7.75 = 116 mg of sulfur-32

    d. 56 days = 4 half-lives

    x 12

    x 12

    x 12

    10.47 If the half-life of an isotope is 24 hours, then two half-lives have passed in 48 hours. Therefore,

    25% of the initial amount of isotope still remains.

    xiniti...

Recommended

View more >