Chapter 1 “Introduction to Chemistry” General Chemistry

Download Chapter 1 “Introduction to Chemistry” General Chemistry

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry General Chemistry </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: Identify five traditional areas of study in chemistry. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: Relate pure chemistry to applied chemistry. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Section 1.1 Chemistry OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: Identify reasons to study chemistry. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> What is Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of the composition of matter Chemistry is the study of the composition of matter matter is anything with mass and occupies space, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. matter is anything with mass and occupies space, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. Has a definite affect on everyday life - Has a definite affect on everyday life - </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes such as burning fuels. C 2 H 5 OH + 3 O 2 2 CO 2 + 3 H 2 O + Energy Reactants Products </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 5 Major Areas of Chemistry 1) Analytical Chemistry- concerned with the composition of substances. 2) Inorganic Chemistry- primarily deals with substances without carbon 3) Organic Chemistry- essentially all substances containing carbon 4) Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things 5) Physical Chemistry- describes the behavior of chemicals (ex. stretching); involves lots of math! Boundaries not firm they overlap and interact </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> - Page 8 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> What is Chemistry? Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge Pure chemistry- gathers knowledge for the sake of knowledge Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing leads to an application * Nylon Figure 1.3, page 9 Applied Chemistry- is using chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing leads to an application * Nylon Figure 1.3, page 9 * Aspirin (C 9 H 8 O 4 ) - to relieve pain * Use of TECHNOLOGY (benefit!) </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Why Study Chemistry? Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry explains our world Everyone and everything around us involves chemistry explains our world What in the world isnt Chemistry? What in the world isnt Chemistry? Helps you make choices; helps make you a better informed citizen Helps you make choices; helps make you a better informed citizen A possible career for your future A possible career for your future Used to attain a specific goal Used to attain a specific goal What did we describe as pure and applied chemistry? What did we describe as pure and applied chemistry? </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Section 1.3 Thinking Like a Scientist OBJECTIVES: OBJECTIVES: Identify three steps in the scientific method. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> The Scientific Method A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions. A logical approach to solving problems or answering questions. Starts with observation- noting and recording information and facts Starts with observation- noting and recording information and facts hypothesis- a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment hypothesis- a proposed explanation for the observation; must be tested by an experiment </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Steps in the Scientific Method 1. Observations (uses your senses) a) quantitative involves numbers = 95 o F b) qualitative is word description = hot 2. Formulating hypotheses (ideas) - possible explanation for the observation, or educated guess 3. Performing experiments (the test) - gathers new information to help decide whether the hypothesis is valid whether the hypothesis is valid </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Scientific Method controlled experiment- designed to test the hypothesis controlled experiment- designed to test the hypothesis only two possible answers: only two possible answers: 1)hypothesis is right 2)hypothesis is wrong We gather data and observations by doing the experiment We gather data and observations by doing the experiment Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle Modify hypothesis - repeat the cycle </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Scientific Method We deal with variables, or factors that can change. Two types: We deal with variables, or factors that can change. Two types: 1) Manipulated variable (or independent variable) is the one that we change 2) Responding variable (or dependent variable) is the one observed during the experiment For results to be accepted, the experiment needs to always produce the same result For results to be accepted, the experiment needs to always produce the same result </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Outcomes over the long term Theory (Model) Theory (Model) - A set of well-tested hypotheses that give an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon not able to be proved Natural Law (or Scientific Law) Natural Law (or Scientific Law) - The same observation applies to many different systems; summarizes results different systems; summarizes results - an example would be: the Law of Conservation of Mass the Law of Conservation of Mass </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Law vs. Theory A law summarizes what has happened. A theory (model) is an attempt to explain why it happened this changes as new information is gathered. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> - Page 22 Using your senses to obtain information Hypothesis is a proposed explanation; should be based on previous knowledge; an educated guess The procedure that is used to test the hypothesis A well-tested explanation for the observations; cannot be proven due to new discoveries Tells what happened </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> </ul>