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HOME AFRICAN CARNIVORES INTERNATIONAL NETWORK (ACIN) © O.Mwebi, spotted hyena cub in den Carnivores are major components of ecosystems that regulate herbivore populations and beyond to ensure ecological balance. In Africa, the large carnivores of the three families: Felidae (lion, leopard, and cheetah), Hyenidae (spotted, striped and brown hyenas) and Canidae (wild dogs) are facing great conservation challenges resulting from negative impacts of their interactions with people. Similarly, the medium- to small-sized carnivores are to some degree facing the same challenges. Larger predators also play important role in the reconstruction of the Past in terms of site formation, bone accumulation and modification and in the interpretation of intra- and inter-specific competitions, especially with prehistoric human groups. The aim of the program will be to intensify the synergies between eco-ethologylogy, zooarchaeology, paleontology and palaeoecology to aid in understanding and resolving issues surrounding human-carnivore interactions over time and space, and better understand the ecology of predators and their role and effects both in the past, fossil communities, and in the modern time within specific ecosystems. Here : passing band with pictures of living carnivores and skulls + work on hyena dens photos ogeto (for ex. Lion then lion skull, hyenid then crocuta skull, wild dog then skulls)

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AFRICAN CARNIVORES INTERNATIONAL NETWORK (ACIN)

O.Mwebi, spotted hyena cub in denCarnivores are major components of ecosystems that regulate herbivore populations and beyond to ensure ecological balance. In Africa, the large carnivores of the three families: Felidae (lion, leopard, and cheetah), Hyenidae (spotted, striped and brown hyenas) and Canidae (wild dogs) are facing great conservation challenges resulting from negative impacts of their interactions with people. Similarly, the medium- to small-sized carnivores are to some degree facing the same challenges. Larger predators also play important role in the reconstruction of the Past in terms of site formation, bone accumulation and modification and in the interpretation of intra- and inter-specific competitions, especially with prehistoric human groups.The aim of the program will be to intensify the synergies between eco-ethologylogy, zooarchaeology, paleontology and palaeoecology to aid in understanding and resolving issues surrounding human-carnivore interactions over time and space, and better understand the ecology of predators and their role and effects both in the past, fossil communities, and in the modern time within specific ecosystems.Here : passing band with pictures of living carnivores and skulls + work on hyena dens photos ogeto(for ex. Lion then lion skull, hyenid then crocuta skull, wild dog then skulls)

ABOUT US

AFRICAN CARNIVORES INTERNATIONAL NETWORK (ACIN)

The main goal is to improve knowledge on African carnivores and develop all scientific studies in to an integrative approach of the Ecology of Predation, from fossil to modern record, that is to say during the Quaternary time (the last 2.6 Million years).Our aim is to bring together young and senior researchers involved in different fields of carnivore studies to share existing data and to improve skills and results. It will concern biology, ethology, ecology, genetics, conservation research, paleontology, morphofunction, zooarcheology, taphonomy, linked with detailed information from various types of African ecosystems. read more[Read more : Large carnivores have interacted with humans since pre-historic times. For example, Pleistocene spotted hyenas bone assemblages of Europe and other countries around the world (ex. Felids in South America, and in Africa), are found intermingled with those of Paleolithic humans. This, interaction is thought to have influenced and continues to influence the evolutionary behavior of both humans and the large carnivores. Thus carnivores have been of great interest to archaeologists, paleoanthropologists, social scientists and conservation biologists/ecologists as well as the local communities they interact with. Peoples relationship with large carnivores is complex and often conflicting; on the one hand, they are admired and awe inspiring animals while on the other (due to their negative impacts on people and their livelihoods) they are highly detested. They are often targeted for elimination by wildlife managers when they are thought to have a negative impact on a species of high conservation priority such as the rhinoceros or bongo and other ungulates even if the impact is unsubstantiated. As a result, these fascinating animals are among the most endangered of mammals and conservation efforts to expand their numbers require concerted efforts that need to accommodate the divergent perceptions of these important ecological agents. Studies on past (archeological) and modern (historical) carnivore bone modifications and accumulations play a key role in understanding human evolution and their associated paleoenvironmental dynamics. Additionally carnivore bone accumulations inform us about their herbivore prey resources and the associated prevailing environmental conditions at their accumulation sites during their period of deposition.

To understand large carnivores evolutionary and social behavior and their ultimate conservation, a combination of research approaches is therefore required. For example carnivore eco-ethological studies can inform evolutionary studies that may put observed carnivore traits into perspective. Similarly, understanding site taphonomic processes are important in the interpretation of paleontological remains and bone assemblages and hence provide greater understanding of paleoecology and faunal dynamics during the Quaternary period. While the role of carnivores in helping understand human and faunal evolution has long been recognized, there exists no forum (especially in Africa) where researchers involved in carnivore research can come together to exchange ideas and focus upon common area of interest. We therefore, here propose to strengthen our carnivores researchers project, bringing together researchers from various fields of specialization, aimed at creating a body of studies and forum for exchange of ideas necessary for the (i) understanding human-carnivore interactions (with modern proxies transferred to fossils) and (ii) interpreting prey-predator dynamics for sustainable carnivore conservation. Focusing on carnivore alone cannot be done in isolation, but their prey base and habitat requirements need also to be studied. Research approaches to understanding carnivore evolution and their interactions with prey and humans have been improving over time (e.g. through the use of isotopes to reconstruct diet); the results of such investigations need to be shared and their merits and limitations discussed. Similarly, conservation approaches of large carnivores are diverse with various goals that sometimes lead to formulation of conflicting carnivore management strategies. This is understandable given that each research project has to meet certain set objectives - whether they are known to be in conflict with other conservation research strategies or not. However, this is not consistent with sustainable carnivore conservation because some strategies recommend total carnivore elimination. Hence, sustainable carnivore conservation requires integrated multidisciplinary approaches that balance the various interest groups conservation objectives. Therefore, this project will be used as a platform to integrate modern, paleontological and zooarchaeological approaches to understand human-carnivore interactions over time and space (starting from African examples/site with future enlargement and integration with other data from other continents) and develop approaches to sustainable recent carnivore conservation as well as nurture skills of upcoming researchers through the senior researchers who will be involved.This project focused on Africa with yield large area of wildlife conservation (park, reserve) and a rich carnivore guild, which can also be compared to ancient ecosystem in Eurasia (Pleistocene); indeed, in the Pleistocene record of Europe and Asia, species as lions, panthers, hyenas, large canids were present associated to a diversified ungulates community (from small to very large). Then Affric faunal communities have in some extend some similarity with other continents during Quaternary times. Our work can interest many scientists working in different places in the world (with topics human-animal-environment interactions, prey-predator dynamics, etc.).]End of read more

Hyenid-Lion, from D.Green et al, 2014

NEWS

Conferences and Workshop

* 24th-25th June 2014 : An international conference was organized on The African Carnivores: impacts on ecosystems and human interactions, held at National Museum at Nairobi, Louis Leakey Auditorium. Funded by INQUA and with other supports (see Partners).

Pdf : Programme and Abstract = African Large Carnivores Conf-June2014_Prog & AbstrReport by T.Adhola (NMK) = Report_Internat Conf Afr Large Carnivores-Adhola

ref quaternary persptives* 26th-27th June 2014 : a two day regional seminar, using the competence existing (Univ.of Nairobi, Nat.Museum, foreign contributors) as well as the bone collections at the National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi (presently almost 50 bone assemblages from spotted and striped dens are available) to teach techniques in the field of Taphonomy, conservation and evolutionary studies: bone modifications and tooth marks, skeletal identification, hair analysis, etc.; this was devoted especially to ECR and DCR people.TO COME* 3-6th, August 2015 International Session on the topic: The Preys of Carnivores: Modern and Fossil evidence, be held during the 5th East African Association for Palaeoanthropology and Palaeontology (EAAPP) Conference, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: August 362015 (see Below)To be put into a frame ?:The EAAPPSecretariatwish to invite you to the upcoming 5th East African Association for Palaeoanthropology and Palaeontology (EAAPP) conference to be held in Dar es Salaam from August 362015. As in this past, the aim this EAAPP conference is to bring East African and foreign researchers, scientists, and museum administrators together in a forum in order to exchange scientific information and discuss current research, museum ethics, policy, and practice.We are planning sessions dedicated to research papers addressing issues in paleoanthropology, archaeology, paleontology, and paleoenvironments. In addition, other sessions are designed to address issues regarding Carnivore, policies affecting field and laboratory research, collections management, the Pan-African vision and other technical issues. Finally, a session is planned to provide a forum for students and junior researchers to discuss issues regarding training, research opportunities, and other questions with regard to their career advancement. This will enable the students to directly interact with senior researchers and foreign researchers thus providing a rare opportunity to learn and forge collaborations. We are hereby calling for abstracts not exceeding 300 words on any of the listed themes. Abstracts should be sent not later than April, 17th 2015 to [email protected] with copy to [email protected] & [email protected] the title of your abstract in the subject line and the abstract in a Microsoft Word attachment. Please Precise it is for the Session The Preys of carnivoresCorresponding authors should provide their complete addresses and emails and the institutional affiliations of all co-authors.Please note that a person MAY NOT be a senior author on more than one abstract. Registration fees: $100 for non-members (professionals) $50 for members (professionals) $50 for non-members (students) $25 for members (students) African professionals or students based in an African institution will get 50% reduction in registration fees.Website:http://www.eaapp.or.ke/Facebook:http://www.facebook.com/pages/East-African-Association-of-Paleoanthropology-and-Paleontology/* (Fall 2015) as in 2014 a two day regional seminar, using the competence existing as well as the bone collections at the NMK, Osteology, Nairobi, to teach techniques in the field of Taphonomy, conservation and evolutionary studies: bone modifications and tooth marks, skeletal identification, hair analysis, etc.; devoted especially to ECR and DCR people. Please feel free to ask for details.* In Progress: Scientific list of people involved in the African carnivore study (questionnaire in progress)Interesting Links on Carnivores (courtesy of Dr. Ph. Fosse, CNRS, Toulouse)ECOLOGY

Carnivore Ecology & Conservation with bibliography/dissertationhttp://www.carnivoreconservation.org/portal/index.phpIUCN, International Union for Conservation of Naturehttp://www.iucn.org/KORA cologie des Carnivores et gestion de la faune sauvagehttp://www.kora.ch/index.php?id=1&L=1Large Carnivore Initiative West & Central Africahttp://www.largecarnivoresafrica.com/frLarge Carnivore Initiative for Europehttp://www.lcie.org/OSTEOLOGY

ArchoZooThquehttp://photos.archeozoo.org/index/category/65-carnivores_langen_carnivores_lang_langes_carnivoros_lang_Virtual Zooarchaeology of the Arctic Project (VZAP)http://vzap.iri.isu.edu/ViewPage.aspx?id=230Anatomie du squelette des grands et moyens carnivores terrestres actuels: Photothque (Version 1)http://www.archeozoo.org/fr-article265.htmlPALEONTOLOGY

(Pr)histoire des flinshttp://prehistoiredefelins.eklablog.com/PHYLOGENY

Mikkos Phylogeny Archivehttp://www.helsinki.fi/~mhaaramo/TAPHONOMY

http://www.taphonomy.net/Bibliography

We plan here to put all pdf, scientific papers and reports, concerning African carnivores. In cas we send us pdf we will put it in herePARTNERS

The project, and the conference-workshop-training organized (see NEWS), is made possible thanks to:[put the logo for each parteners]

* International Union of Quaternary Research (INQUA), founded in 1928 by a group of scientists seeking to improve understanding of environmental change during the glacial ages (Quaternary) through interdisciplinary research. Today, more than 35 member countries, spread throughout the world, contribute to INQUA's vitality.http://www.inqua.org/about.html

The Human & Biosphere commission of INQUA have supported and funded the Carnivore group network in 2014 and 2015 http://www.inqua.org/habcom/index.html* French Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya support the June 2014 conference, as well as provided student grants (Master and PhD levels)

http://www.ambafrance-ke.org/-French-embassy-in-Nairobi-

* GDR 3591 is a Groupement de Recherches of the french CNRS, working on Taphonomie, Environnement & Archologie (TaphEnA)

http://lampea.cnrs.fr/spip.php?rubrique156http://www.cnrs.fr/index.php * IRD: The IRD (Institut de recherche pour le dveloppement) is a French research organisation, original and unique on the European development research scene. Emphasizing interdisciplinarity, the IRD has focused its research for over 65 years on the relationship between man and its environment, in Africa, Mediterranean, Latin America, Asia and the French tropical overseas territories. Support have been given through the Herego-Parego Project. https://en.ird.fr/

* National Museum of Kenya, Nairobi: the NMK provide all facilities durint conference and workshop, thank to scientist and technician personnel, in relation with the impotant collctions both fossil and modernWebb site of NMK

NMK, Osteology Dpt, Ungulate skull alley & mounted Lion

We are also in contact with other scientific association/institutions as- EAQUA- WAQUA- EAAPP http://www.eaapp.or.ke/- AFEQ-CNF INQUA- Kenya Wildlife ServicePut web links for each

GALLERY

Photos : Anatomy of Carnivores

osteology Dpt of NMK

List of species + file with photos(possible to provide high resolution images on request)

CONTACT US

The African carnivore program and its international network constitutes a first step to a better understanding of their biology as well as what they can tell us about their origin with data on the paleoecosytems. This will be link modern and past information on carnivores within Quaternary perspective, with possible development to include other biological data (herbivores, flora) as well as relevant geological s.l. data. One of the main outcomes will be to ensure better integrative approaches of understanding complex conditions using modern proxies to be transferred to the past information.

- The website would like to be the base of a large relational Data-Base on large carnivores in Africa that includes information on and analyses of:

* Carnivore sites : Location of bone assemblage sites, carnivore species composition (and frequency) and chronology (dates) for the Quaternary period; this data will be gathered from members of the network and from literature (each member would fill a excel file with same structure, and send to the leader of the project, in order to be homogenize and then share by all)

* Morphometrical database on skull, teeth and post-cranial elements from different African countries, based on both fossils and modern specimens; one of the objectives would be to see if there are any differences (in term of body-size) related with geography, vgtation and climate (temperature); this data will be generated during members meetings and data links provided;

This page constitutes a forum place where you can question, propose and ask for all topics about carnivores: Feel free to use as your convenienceYou can also contact directly:Dr. Ogeto Mwebi, Head Osteology section, NMK [email protected] Jean-Philip Brugal, Research Director, CNRS [email protected]

Specific objectives

Create a network of carnivores researchers working and/or based in Africa responsible for evaluating and providing framework concerning carnivores ecology (with implication on conservation) that add value to land use activities while preserving local livelihoods. Booklet and public article could be disseminated toward university, school, and museum trying to get a wide audience near local human community.

Such network concerns both modern and fossil carnivores, starting on African continent but possibly enlarge to other continents for comparative purposes

Integrate the normally disparate paleontological, zooarchaeological, modern ecological and socio-economic/cultural studies of carnivores in order to develop a better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics and human interactions that affect carnivores over time and space; Criteria as 1) taxonomic diversity, 2) biological structure (sex, age) & morphometry, 3) skeletal representation, 4) tooth marks, 5) related environmental condition (living species, geotopography)...are some example of variables which have to be integrated site by site (sites= dens, resting-place, kill-sites, scavenging sites, etc.). A common methodology need to be discussed and largely disseminated, associated with detailed analytical procedures (ex. tooth marks and metrics on them) in order to made a DataBase with possibility for scientist of other continents (Europe, America) to participate to such issue.

Organise regular regional and in-country workshops and training seminars to explain taxonomical and taphonomical procedures, importance to protect carnivore guild, and role and effects of carnivore on ecosystems (educative goals), including for professional their participation in international conferences focusing on carnivore research and conservation with their prey dynamics.

Develop a common methodologies and create databases: in anatomy (photos see Gallery : will be freely available to interested users (online data)) and biometry, on bone assemblages modified by carnivores (data on biodiversity, biological structure, marks and skeletal representation, etc.) with implication on range and type of predatory actions;

Document the influence of modern pastoralists on carnivore behaviour, their prey dynamics and their response to the changing conditions

Document the influence of modern pastoralists on carnivore behavior; their prey dynamics and their responses to the changing conditions.