c ellular b iochemistry and m etabolism (cls 333 ) dr. samah kotb nasr eldeen
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- C ELLULAR B IOCHEMISTRY AND M ETABOLISM (CLS 333 ) Dr. Samah Kotb Nasr Eldeen
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- P ENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY C HAPTER 2
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- INTRODUCTION In most animal tissues, glucose is catabolized via the glycolytic pathway into two molecules of pyruvate.
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- Pyruvate is then oxidized via the citric acid cycle to generate ATP. There is another metabolic fate for glucose used to generate NADPH and specialized products needed by the cell. This pathway is called the pentose phosphate pathway. Some text books call it the hexose monophosphate shunt, still others call it the phosphogluconate pathway. We will call it in this class the pentose phosphate pathway.
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- The pentose phosphate pathway produces NADPH which is the universal reductant in anabolic pathways. In mammals the tissues requiring large amounts of NADPH produced by this pathway are the tissues that synthesize fatty acids and steroids such as the mammary glands, adipose tissue, adrenal cortex and the liver.
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- Tissues less active in fatty acid synthesis such as skeletal muscle are virtually lacking the pentose phosphate pathway. The second function of the pentose phosphate pathway is to generate pentoses, particularly ribose which is necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids.
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- T HE PPP CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO PHASES The oxidative phase : Generates NADPH which is required for many biosynthetic pathways and for detoxification of reactive oxygen species. The non-oxidative phase : Interconverts C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7 monosaccharides to produce ribose-5-P for nucleotide synthesis, and also to regenerate glucose-6-P to maintain NADPH production by the oxidative phase.
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- In the first step glucose-6-phosphate is oxidized into ribulose-5-phosphate, CO2. During the oxidation of glucose- 6-phosphate NADP+ is reduced into NADPH. The second step of the pathway converts the ribulose 5- phosphate into other pentose-5-phosphates including ribose-5-phosphate used to synthesize nucleic acids.
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- The third step includes a series of reactions that convert three of the pentose-5-phosphates into two molecules of hexoses and one triose. In the fourth step, some of these sugars are converted into glucose-6-phosphate so the cycle can be be repeated. The direction of the pathway varies to meet different metabolic conditions.
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- T HE OXIDATIVE PHASE 1 Glucose-6-P is converted to ribulose-5-P with production of 2 molecules of NADPH and CO2 Three enzymatic reactions in the oxidative phase G6PD is the committed step in the Pentose Phosphate Pathway because 6-Phosphogluconolactone has no other metabolic fate except to be converted to 6-phosphogluconate.
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- Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidation of the aldehyde at C1 of glucose-6-phosphate, to a carboxylic acid. This enzyme requires Mg 2+ et NADP + (serves as electron acceptor) as coenzymes NADPH is a potent competitive inhibitor of this enzyme NADPH/NADP+ increase inhibits the reaction NADPH/NADP+ decrease stimulate the reaction
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- 6-Phosphogluconolactonase catalyzes hydrolysis of 6- Phosphogluconolactone. The product is 6-phosphogluconate. It is irreversible but not rate-limiting.
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- Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase catalyzes oxidative decarboxylation of 6-phosphogluconate, to yield the 5-C ketose ribulose-5-phosphate The OH at C3 (C2 of product) is oxidized to a ketone This promotes loss of the carboxyl at C1 as CO 2 NADP + serves as oxidant.
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- T HE NON - OXIDATIVE PHASE 2 Ribulose-5-phosphate by means of ribulose-5-p phos epimerase is converted to xylulose-5-p while by R-5-P isomerase is converted to ribose-5-P.
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- Epimerase inter-converts stereoisomers ribulose-5-P and xylulose-5-P Isomerase converts the ketose ribulose-5-P to ribose-5-P which is used in nucleotide, nucleic acid biosynthesis Both reactions are reversible
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- Transketolase transfers a 2-C fragment containing ketone group from xylulose-5-P to ribose-5-P. Transketolase requires thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a derivative of vitamin B 1 as coenzyme and Mg 2+ as cofactor Transfer of the 2-C fragment to the 5-C ribose-5-P yields sedoheptulose- 7-P and glyceraldehyde-3-P.
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- Transaldolase catalyzes transfer of a 3-C from sedoheptulose-7- phosphate to glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate to form erythrose-4 P and fructose- 6-p.
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- Transketolase Transfer of the 2-C fragment ( containing ketone group) from xylulose-5-P to erythrose-4-Pto yields fructose-6-P and glyceraldehyde-3-P. Xylulose-5-P + erythrose-4-P fructose-6-P+ glyceraldehyde-3-P
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- SUMMARY: The balance sheet below summarizes flow of 15 C atoms through PPP reactions by which 5-C sugars are converted to 3-C and 6-C sugars.
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- I MPORTANCE OF P ENTOSE P HOSPHATE P ATHWAY
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- Ribulose-5-P may be converted to ribose-5-phosphate, a substrate for synthesis of nucleotides, nucleic acids and coenzymes The pathway also produces some NADPH NB: PPP is the only way of ribose-5-P production in our body due to absence of ribokinase enzyme
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- Glyceraldehyde-3-P and fructose-6-P may be converted to glucose-6-P, via enzymes of gluconeogenesis, for reentry to Pentose Phosphate Pathway, maximizing formation of NADPH, which is need for reductive biosynthesis.
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- 3-C Glyceraldehyde-3-P and 6-C fructose-6-P, formed from 5-C sugar phosphates, may enter Glycolysis for ATP synthesis. 5-C Ribose-1-phosphate generated during catabolism of nucleosides also enters Glycolysis in this way, after first being converted to ribose-5-phosphate Thus the Pentose Phosphate Pathway serves as an entry into Glycolysis for both 5-carbon & 6-carbon sugars.
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- The major role PPP in RBCs is the production of NADPH which protect these cells from oxidative damage by providing GSH for removal of H2O2
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- Importance of PPP ( the main generator of NADPH): NADPH is needed for reductive biosynthesis: 1- Synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol, steroid hormones& sphingosine. Thus it is active in lactating mammary gland, liver, gonads, adipose tissue & adrenal cortex. 2- Hydroxylation reactions in metabolism of phenylalanine and tryptophan.
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- 3- synthesis of nitric oxide (NO): Arginine + O 2 + NADPH + H + NADP+ NO + citrulline NO is Laughing gas Used as anesthetic Causes relaxation of vascular smooth muscles. In macrophages, NO is effective against viral, fungal, Protozoan infections. Potent inhibitor of platelet aggregations. Neurotransmitter in brain.
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- 4. It provides a way for oxidation of glucose by other than TCA cycle with no production of energy. 5. It provides the cell with ribose -5-P which is needed for nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleic acids & coenzymes biosynthesis.
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- Regulation of pentose phosphate pathway The entry of glucose 6-phosphate into the pentose phosphate pathway is controlled by the cellular concentration of NADPH. NADPH is a strong inhibitor of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Rate Limiting Reaction). As NADPH is used in various pathways, inhibition is relieved, and the enzyme is accelerated to produce more NADPH.
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- Regulation of the G6PD activity controls flux through the glycolytic pathway and pentose phosphate pathways
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- Regulation of pentose phosphate pathway The synthesis of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is induced by the increased insulin/glucagon ratio after a high carbohydrate meal. Insulin, which secreted in response to hyperglycemia, induces the synthesis of G6P dehydrogenase and 6- phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase increasing the rate of glucose oxidation by PPP. The synthesis of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase is repressed during fasting.
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- Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency causes hemolytic anemia Mutations present in some populations causes a deficiency in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, with consequent impairment of NADPH production. Detoxification of H 2 O 2 is inhibited, and cellular damage results lipid peroxidation leads to erythrocyte membrane breakdown and hemolytic anemia. Most G6PD-deficient individuals are asymptomatic only in combination with certain environmental factors (sulfa antibiotics, herbicides, antimalarials, *divicine ) do clinical manifestations occur. *toxic ingredient of fava beans.
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