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Malaysian Engineering Magazine



2. B U L E T I N I N G E N I E U R 1contents Volume 23 September-November 2004LEMBAGAJURUTERAMALAYSIA744562 Presidents Message4 Editors NoteAnnouncementCover Feature6 Pollution Prevention and River Water QualityImprovement Programme8 Environmental Audit A Proactive Tool ForPollution And Accident Prevention13 Holistic Approach To Urban Storm-WaterPollution Management19 Economic Approaches In AddressingEnvironmental IssuesUpdate22 New Drawing Requirements ForWater Supply Layout Plan23 New Regulations UnderEnvironmental Quality Act 1974Engineering & Law24 Supervision: An OverviewFeature36 The WTO And The South: Implications AndRecent Developments (Part 2)42 The Bridge Builders Marvels of Engineering50 The Role Of Sewage Treatment InPublic Health (Series 2)Engineering Nostalgia56 Milestones In Malaysian Engineering:Merdeka Stadium 195713 3. B U L E T I N I N G E N I E U R 2Members of the Board of Engineers Malaysia(BEM) 2003/2004PresidentYBhg. Tan Sri Dato Ir. Hj Zaini OmarRegistrarIr. Ashari bin Mohd YakubSecretaryIr. Dr. Judin bin Abdul KarimMembers of BEMYBhg. Tan Sri Dato Ir. Md Radzi bin MansorYBhg. Datuk Ir. Santhakumar SivasubramaniamYBhg. Dato Ir. Dr. Hj. Abdul Rashid bin MaidinYBhg. Datu Ir. Hubert Thian Chong HuiYBhg. Dato Ir. Ashok Kumar SharmaYBhg. Datuk Ir. Md Sidek bin AhmadYBhg. Datuk Ir. Hj. Keizrul AbdullahYBhg. Dato Ir. Kok Soo ChonIr. Ho Jin WahIr. Yim Hon WaIr. Prof. Ow Chee ShengIr. Mohd Aman bin Hj IdrisIr. Hj. Abu Bakar bin Che ManIr. Prof. Abang Abdullah bin Abang AliTuan Hj. Basar bin JuraimiAr. Paul Lai ChuEditorial BoardAdvisorYBhg. Tan Sri Dato Ir. Hj Zaini OmarChairmanYBhg Datuk Ir. Shanthakumar SivasubramaniamEditorIr. Fong Tian YongMembersYBhg. Dato Ir. Ashok Kumar SharmaIr. Prof. Madya Dr. Eric Goh Kok HoeIr. Prof. Ishak bin Abdul RahmanIr. Prof. Dr. Ruslan HassanIr. Prof. Dr. K. S. KannanIr. Nitchiananthan BalasubramaniamIr. Mustaza bin Hj. SalimIr. Md Amir bin KasimIr. Dr Lee Say ChongIr. Chan Boon TeikIr. Choo Kok BengPublication OfficerPn. Nik Kamaliah bt. Nik Abdul RahmanAssistant Publication OfficerPn. Che Asiah bt. Mohamad AliDesign and ProductionInforeach Communications Sdn BhdBuletin Ingenieur is published by the Board ofEngineers Malaysia (Lembaga Jurutera Malaysia)and is distributed free of charge to registeredProfessional Engineers.The statements and opinions expressed in thispublication are those of the writers.BEM invites all registered engineers to contributearticles or send their views and comments to thefollowing address:Publication CommitteeLembaga Jurutera Malaysia,Tingkat 17, Ibu Pejabat JKRKompleks Kerja Raya Malaysia,Jalan Sultan Salahuddin50580 Kuala LumpurTel: 03-2698 0590 Fax: 03-2692 5017E-mail: bem1@jkr.gov.my publication@bem.org.myWeb site: http://www.bem.org.myAdvertising/SubscriptionsSubscription Form is on page 54Advertisement Form is on page 55Over the past decades, there has been anincreasing awareness and concern for theenvironment and how its deterioration as a result ofimpact from human activities could deplete anddestroy our natural resources as well as seriouslyaffect the quality of human life. Our dependency onnatural resources, whether renewable or non-renewable,results in the continuing degradation ofthe environment. As the exploitation of naturalresources for development is inevitable, the focus has been on a long-termsustainable use of these resources and development withoutpermanent residual impact on the environment. Expanding populationsurgently require more food, water, energy and land and where there arefew alternative resources, one cannot afford to wait for long term benefits,and as such, finds investments in environmental protection unattractive.In the past, it would seem that engineering in its various fields be itcivil, structural, mechanical or chemical would run contrary to theaims and objectives of environmental protection and conservation. Mostaspects of engineering would be related to various forms of developmentand construction that would have potentially lasting and damaging impacton the environment and its resources. However, over recent years, thereis growing realisation that engineering not only has a role to play inenvironmental protection but also a responsibility to ensure thatdevelopment does not have long-term serious impact.It is now realised that engineering design in its various forms indevelopment can greatly assist in alleviating and reducing potentialimpact on the environment, and this is true of most if not all aspects ofengineering. The construction of infrastructure facilities buildings, roads,bridges, jetties, airports, etc. all involve the various branches ofengineering - civil and structural, mechanical and electrical. Theseinvolvements can contribute tremendously to carefully thought-outdesigns and specifications that will have a lesser or zero impact on theenvironment without sacrificing or comprising the overall objectives ofdevelopment. Chemical engineering is vital in the design of industrialsystems that optimize the chemical processes without generating toxicwastes; and where toxic wastes are inevitable, in the treatment of suchwastes and pollutants in sewage treatment facilities and landfills, andindustrial emissions. Priorities must be set in order to combineenvironment and development, and in demonstrating the economic valueof an environmental concern. The option of no project or a 100%environmentally sound development is unrealistic and the challenge forengineers at this point in time is to recognise their role and responsibilityin providing technical expertise in balancing benefits and cost indevelopment and in the alternative ways of achieving the desired results.On that note, it is worthwhile to reiterate that there should be noconflict of interest between the environment and development. Theultimate challenge now is to use engineering to help reduce as well asprovide solutions to environmental issues that arise as a result ofdevelopment.TAN SRI DATO Ir. HJ. ZAINI BIN OMARPresidentBOARD OF ENGINEERS MALAYSIAKDN PP11720/9/2003 ISSN 0128-4347 VOL. 23 SEPT-NOV 2004Presidents Message 4. Editors NoteThe Environment is apparently a more popular theme among ourcontributors of articles. This interest is understandable given the emphasison this subject by the public and private sectors. At the present time alone,there are several environmentally-related national seminars and activitiesin the capital city.Given the popularity of this subject, the Publication Committee mayrepeat this theme on a yearly basis as we understand that there are moreissues and policies under study that may be of interest to practicingengineers.Meanwhile, give a thought to the December issue on FacilityManagement as more pages will be added on to bring festive cheer toreaders.Ir. Fong Tian YongEditorWorld EngineersConvention 2004(WEC 2004)Date: November 2-6, 2004Venue: Shanghai InternationalConvention Centre, Pudong, ShanghaiFor further details, please contact IEMSecretariat at 03-7968 4001/4002 orsec@iem.org.myEvent CalendarJURUTERA PERUNDING LCB U L E T I N I N G E N I E U R 4SDN. BHD.(141864-T)Mechanical & ElectricalConsulting Engineers130C, Jalan Thamby Abdullah, Brickfields,G.P.O. Box 12538, 50782 Kuala Lumpur.Tel: (603) 2274 9900, 2274 9895, 2274 9896Fax: (603) 2274 9909E-mail: jplc@po.jaring.myPublication CalendarThe following list is the PublicationCalendar for the year 2004 and 2005.While we normally seek contributionsfrom experts for each special theme, weare also pleased to accept articlesrelevant to themes listed.Please contact the Editor or thePublication Officer in advance if youwould like to make such contributions orto discuss details and deadlines.December 2004: FACILITY MANAGEMENTMarch 2005: CONSTRUCTION AND THE LAWJune 2005: ENERGYSeptember 2005: WATERDecember 2005: ENVIRONMENTAnnouncement 5. Pollution Prevention AndRiver Water QualityImprovement ProgrammeUnder the EnvironmentalQuality Act (EQA) 1974environment means thephysical factors of thesurroundings of human beingsincluding land, water, atmosphere,climate, sound, odour, taste, thebiological factors of animals andplants and the social factor ofaesthetics.To date, various water pollutionprevention and abatementregulations had been formulated toprevent and control the discharge ofeffluent from polluting point sources.In combating water pollution andenhancing the quality of our inlandwaters, besides the enforcementactivities carried out in accordancewith the requirement of thosepollution prevention regulations, theDepartment of Environment (DOE)also monitors the quality of the riverwater. The river water monitoringprogramme was initiated in 1978,with the initial aim of establishingwater quality baselines, andsubsequently to detect water qualitychanges and to identify the causesof pollution. Out of the 189 rivers inthe country 120 river systems werechosen to be included in thisprogramme based on their beneficialuses and economic importance. Atotal of 926 river water qualitymonitoring stations were establishedwithin these 120 river basins. Theappraisal of the water quality in eachriver basin is based on the WaterQuality Index (WQI) consisting ofparameters such as dissolved oxygen(DO), biochemical oxygen demand(BOD), chemical oxygen demand(COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3N),suspended solids (SS) and pH.River Water Quality StatusThe trend of water quality (19902003) for the 120 river basins is asshown in Figure 1. The number ofpolluted rivers was observed to beincreasing