borders addendum

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CIVIL MILITARY RELATIONS DA

Borders Addendum

CDI 2007

NEGATIVE

2Link Sub Saharan Africa

3Link Humanitarian Issues

4Link Cultural Governance

5Link Poor Countries

6Link Development Focus

7Link Third World

8Link Western Objectivism

9Link Western Objectivism

10Link Benign Governance

11Link Knowledge Production

12Link Social Science

13Link Method

14Link Ignore Culture

15Internal Link Colonialism

16Impact Single Focus

17Impact Masking

18Impact Conflict

20ImpactSystemic Violence

21Impact Universal politics

22Biopower Module

23Impact Biopower

25Impact Securitization

26Distopia Impact Module

27Alternative Solvency

28Alternative Solvency

34A New Alternative

36A2: Perm

39A2: Borders Stop Wars

AFFIRAMTIVE

40Infinite Crises

42Link U.S. is a tool

43Link Alt is Complacent

44Implications Extensions

46Borders Good

49Perm Solvency

Link Sub Saharan AfricaSub Saharan Africa is an Arbitrary Boundary

G.N Uzoigwe, 00 [Uzoigwe, G.N. The Imperial Experience of Sub Saharan Africa. JSTOR (2000)]

Link Humanitarian Issues

Humanitarian issues are about administering life and to exclude those not worthy from politics. The political border is drawn, resulting in violence.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii.

Link Cultural Governance

Cultural governance is aimed at taking control through defining of borders and territories.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii.

Link Poor Countries

Richer versus poorer country dichotomies allow the line to be drawn between us and them.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii. Link Development FocusFocusing on issues of development reproduce mapping structures and hierarchies.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii.

Link Third World

Third World models allow for justifies political and economical intervention into states, This intervention groups populations based on economic or political indicators, further drawing the border

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii.

Link Western ObjectivismThe current modern American state political system allows for continued control over the nation state building system, influencing the way we cartographize the world, ultimately allowing politics to look like the professional that doesnt make mistakes and the course of action is justified no matter what.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii. Link Western Objectivism

Western authors advocating the plan is formed on the basis of free thinking individuals, that they can see the issues and solve them. This autonomy is key to excluding African societies from the west drawing the line between us and them.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii.

Link Benign Governance

Link discourse of good governance and comparative politics reproduces white dominance and racism further drawing the line between us and them.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii.

Link Knowledge Production

Western views and interpretations of other nations are used to benefit us in order to justify political action.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii.

Link Social ScienceSocial science specifically American politics practice of comparative politics, legitimizes the violence and cognition of inequality towards indigenous populations.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii.

Link MethodEngaging in comparative politics changes how we relate to knowledge and representation of the Third World

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. Xi xii.

Link Ignore Culture

Borders ignore ethno-cultural groups in Africa

Jeffery Herbst, International Organization, 1989. [Herbst, Jeffery. International Organization (MIT Press), Vol. 43, No.4, 1989. The Creation and Maintenance of National Boundaries in Africa The African frontiers "have been decided upon in complete disregard

of local needs and circumstance." Equally important for many writers is the fact that the borders ignored any well-defined criteria and did not take into account what Adu Boahen calls the "ethno cultural, geographical, and ecological realities of Africa": Because of the artificiality of these boundaries, each independent African state is made up of a whole host of different ethno cultural groups and nations having different historical traditions and cultures and speaking different languages. One can imagine, then, how stupendous the problem of developing the independent states of Africa into true nation states is.

Borders in Africa are not specific to any pre-existing social or political groups

Jeffery Herbst, International Organization, 1989. [Herbst, Jeffery. International Organization (MIT Press), Vol. 43, No.4, 1989. The Creation and Maintenance of National Boundaries in Africa The arbitrary division of the continent by the European powers, with little or no respect for preexisting social and political groupings or even, sometimes. for "natural" geographical features, has immensely complicated the tasks of nation and state building faced by African governments."' The Organization of African Unity (OAU) has also long recognized the arbitrariness of African borders. For instance, in its 1964 resolution on border disputes, the organization noted that the current borders "constitute a grave and permanent factor of dissension."Internal Link Colonialism

Current Borders Perpetuate Colonialism

Boaz Atzili, 2006 "Border Fixity: When Good Fences Make Bad Neighbors," Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006. ]Africa's borders are particularly intriguing. Despite the arbitrariness with which many state borders in Africa were drawn, they have remained largely fixed.25 From its inception in 1963, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) has endorsed the norm in accordance with the principle of preserving the colonial territorial status quo.26 In practice, as Jeffery Herbst notes, "the vast majority of [African borders] have remained virtually untouched since the late 1800s, when they were first demarcated." The OAU's determination to uphold the norm was demonstrated, for instance, in the 196770 civil war in Nigeria, when the organization sought to prevent Biafra's attempts to secede.27

Borders are Colonialistic

Jeffery Herbst, International Organization, 1989. [Herbst, Jeffery. International Organization (MIT Press), Vol. 43, No.4, 1989. The Creation and Maintenance of National Boundaries in Africa A paradox is central to the nature of political boundaries in Africa: there is widespread agreement that the boundaries are arbitrary, yet the vast majority of them have remained virtually untouched since the late 1800s, when they were first demarcated. The stability of boundaries in the world's most partitioned continent,' where few other political institutions have survived for

very long. is often seen as particularly surprising because the borders were initially drawn without respect for social and linguistic groupings and because the colonial and postcolonial political authorities charged with maintaining the borders have been weak or absent.

Impact Single FocusFocusing on state or Eurocentric models of politics eliminates knowledge production because a lack of multiple perspectives at different level of thought. This straight turns your aff.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii.

Impact Masking

Social science allows for economic, political, and social control of people, all while masking the true intent.

Shapiro, Michael. Methods and Nations: Cultural Governance and the Indigenous Subject. 1st. 2004. pg. xi xii. Impact Conflict

BORDERS ARE IMPERICALLY PROVEN TO CAUSE WARS

Boaz Atzili, 2006 "Border Fixity: When Good Fences Make Bad Neighbors," Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006. ]Since the end of World War II, the norm of fixed bordersthe proscription against foreign conquest and annexation of homeland territoryhas gained prevalence in world politics. But have fixed borders made international conflict less frequent? Observers might assume they have, given that territorial issues have historically been a major cause of war.1 However, among sociopolitically weak states (i.e., states that lack legitimate and effective governmental institutions), fixed borders can actually increase instability and conflict. Good fences can make bad neighbors.

FIXED BORDERS LEADS TO INTERNATIONAL COLFLICTS

Boaz Atzili, 2006 "Border Fixity: When Good Fences Make Bad Neighbors," Ph.D. dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2006. ]Until the late 1980s, the scholarly literature had devote