Blood Chemistry and Hematology of the Spotted Skunk, Spilogale putorius

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<ul><li><p>American Society of Mammalogists</p><p>Blood Chemistry and Hematology of the Spotted Skunk, Spilogale putoriusAuthor(s): Gary A. Heidt and James HargravesReviewed work(s):Source: Journal of Mammalogy, Vol. 55, No. 1 (Feb., 1974), pp. 206-208Published by: American Society of MammalogistsStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1379271 .Accessed: 06/10/2012 13:53</p><p>Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms &amp; Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p><p> .</p><p>JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.</p><p> .</p><p>American Society of Mammalogists is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access toJournal of Mammalogy.</p><p>http://www.jstor.org </p></li><li><p>JOURNAL OF MAMMALOGY JOURNAL OF MAMMALOGY </p><p>TROUGHTON, E. 1965. Furred Animals of Australia. Angus &amp; Robertson, Sydney, xxxii + 376 pp. </p><p>WALKER, E. P. 1964. Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, l:xlviii + 1-646 pp. </p><p>WINDSOR, D. E., AND A. I. DAGG. 1971. The gaits of the Macropodinae (Marsupialia). J. Zool. London, 163:165-175. </p><p>0. L. K. BUCHMANN AND ERIC R. GUILER, Department of Zoology, University of Tas- mania, P. 0. Box 252c, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. Submitted 13 April 1973. Ac- cepted 20 August 1973. </p><p>BLOOD CHEMISTRY AND HEMATOLOGY OF THE SPOTTED SKUNK, SPILOGALE PUTORIUS </p><p>With increased interest in skunks concerning their role in the pathogenesis of rabies, more information is needed regarding their ecology and physiology. This study examines the blood of wild, laboratory-confined spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius interrupta) in an effort to determine values for hematological and blood chemical parameters of the species. </p><p>The six skunks (4 males and 2 females) used in this study were trapped on Shinall Mountain, five miles west of Little Rock, Pulaski Co., Arkansas, during the spring of 1972. They were maintained in the laboratory on a diet of dog meal, supplemented by eggs and vegetables, and water ad libitum. Over a four month period (October 1972 to January 1973) they were bled intracardially three times, while lightly anesthetized with ethyl ether, into 12 cubic centimeter (cc) disposable syringes with 20 gauge, 1 inch siliconized Butter- fly needles. Bleeding dates for each animal were staggered to effect maximum recuperation periods between bleedings. </p><p>A blood smear for each animal was immediately made after bleeding and a 2 cc blood sample was placed in a 7 cc evacuated tube containing EDTA. As soon as possible after collection, red and white blood cell counts were made using a bright line hemocytometer. Standard dilution methods using Hayem's solution and three per cent acetic acid were used, respectively. The standard cyanmethoglobin technique was utilized to determine hemoglobin. The hematocrit was determined by the micromethod, using capillary tubes and a microcentrifuge. </p><p>Another 10 cc of the blood was allowed to clot. The clotted blood was centrifuged, the serum removed, and held under refrigeration until chemical analyses were performed. Serum sodium and potassium determinations were made using an Instrument Laboratories 343 Flame Photometer. A 140.0 milliequivalent per liter (mEq/L) sodium standard, and a 5.0 mEq/L potassium standard were used. The machine was standardized for each de- termination. Chlorides were determined using an Oxford Titrator. Diphenylcarbazone was used as an indicator, and mercuric nitrate (0.01 Normal) as a titrant. A 100.0 mEq/L standard and a 102.8 mEq/L control were run with each determination. The remaining chemical determinations were made on a Technicon SMA 12/60 Autoanalyzer. </p><p>The results of the blood chemical and hematological determinations are presented in Table 1. The mean values as determined from the three bleedings was the value used as the representative figure for each animal. Mean values, 95 per cent confidence intervals, and the range of the observations are given. </p><p>Timmons and Marques (1969) have conducted a similar study on wild, laboratory- confined opossums and partial blood chemical studies have been conducted by Stevenson et al. (1959) and Coldman and Good (1967). A comparison of their data with that ob- tained in this study show a close correlation between the various electrolytes. Glucose </p><p>TROUGHTON, E. 1965. Furred Animals of Australia. Angus &amp; Robertson, Sydney, xxxii + 376 pp. </p><p>WALKER, E. P. 1964. Mammals of the World. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, l:xlviii + 1-646 pp. </p><p>WINDSOR, D. E., AND A. I. DAGG. 1971. The gaits of the Macropodinae (Marsupialia). J. Zool. London, 163:165-175. </p><p>0. L. K. BUCHMANN AND ERIC R. GUILER, Department of Zoology, University of Tas- mania, P. 0. Box 252c, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. Submitted 13 April 1973. Ac- cepted 20 August 1973. </p><p>BLOOD CHEMISTRY AND HEMATOLOGY OF THE SPOTTED SKUNK, SPILOGALE PUTORIUS </p><p>With increased interest in skunks concerning their role in the pathogenesis of rabies, more information is needed regarding their ecology and physiology. This study examines the blood of wild, laboratory-confined spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius interrupta) in an effort to determine values for hematological and blood chemical parameters of the species. </p><p>The six skunks (4 males and 2 females) used in this study were trapped on Shinall Mountain, five miles west of Little Rock, Pulaski Co., Arkansas, during the spring of 1972. They were maintained in the laboratory on a diet of dog meal, supplemented by eggs and vegetables, and water ad libitum. Over a four month period (October 1972 to January 1973) they were bled intracardially three times, while lightly anesthetized with ethyl ether, into 12 cubic centimeter (cc) disposable syringes with 20 gauge, 1 inch siliconized Butter- fly needles. Bleeding dates for each animal were staggered to effect maximum recuperation periods between bleedings. </p><p>A blood smear for each animal was immediately made after bleeding and a 2 cc blood sample was placed in a 7 cc evacuated tube containing EDTA. As soon as possible after collection, red and white blood cell counts were made using a bright line hemocytometer. Standard dilution methods using Hayem's solution and three per cent acetic acid were used, respectively. The standard cyanmethoglobin technique was utilized to determine hemoglobin. The hematocrit was determined by the micromethod, using capillary tubes and a microcentrifuge. </p><p>Another 10 cc of the blood was allowed to clot. The clotted blood was centrifuged, the serum removed, and held under refrigeration until chemical analyses were performed. Serum sodium and potassium determinations were made using an Instrument Laboratories 343 Flame Photometer. A 140.0 milliequivalent per liter (mEq/L) sodium standard, and a 5.0 mEq/L potassium standard were used. The machine was standardized for each de- termination. Chlorides were determined using an Oxford Titrator. Diphenylcarbazone was used as an indicator, and mercuric nitrate (0.01 Normal) as a titrant. A 100.0 mEq/L standard and a 102.8 mEq/L control were run with each determination. The remaining chemical determinations were made on a Technicon SMA 12/60 Autoanalyzer. </p><p>The results of the blood chemical and hematological determinations are presented in Table 1. The mean values as determined from the three bleedings was the value used as the representative figure for each animal. Mean values, 95 per cent confidence intervals, and the range of the observations are given. </p><p>Timmons and Marques (1969) have conducted a similar study on wild, laboratory- confined opossums and partial blood chemical studies have been conducted by Stevenson et al. (1959) and Coldman and Good (1967). A comparison of their data with that ob- tained in this study show a close correlation between the various electrolytes. Glucose </p><p>206 206 Vol. 55, No. I Vol. 55, No. I </p></li><li><p>GENERAL NOTES </p><p>TABLE 1.-Blood chemical and hematological values of the spotted skunk. </p><p>Confidence intervals Determinations Mean (95 per cent) Range </p><p>SERUM Sodium </p><p>mEq/L 146.32 144.14-148.50 143.5-148.5 Chlorides </p><p>mEq/L 109.0 103.81-114.19 101.1-115.2 Potassium </p><p>mEq/L 5.8 4.99-6.61 5.1-7.1 Calcium </p><p>mg% 10.4 9.94-10.86 9.5-10.7 Inorg. Phosphorus </p><p>mg% 6.09 5.07-7.11 4.2-6.9 Total Bilirubin </p><p>mg% 0.08 0.0-0.22 0.0-0.12 Albumin </p><p>g% 1.37 1.19-1.55 1.09-1.61 Globulin Fraction </p><p>g% 6.21 6.00-6.42 5.98-6.49 Uric Acid </p><p>mg% 1.99 1.37-2.61 1.47-2.57 BUN </p><p>mg% 18.5 16.67-20.33 15.6-20.0 Glucose </p><p>mg% 190.2 170.8-209.6 127-247 Cholesterol </p><p>mg% 180.17 156.81-203.53 163-221 BLOOD </p><p>RBC 106/cc 8.93 8.88-8.98 7.46-11.22 </p><p>WBC 103/cc 10.03 8.58-11.47 8.57-11.95 </p><p>Hematocrit ( % ) 45.07 43.15-46.99 43.5-47.5 Hemoglobin (g) 15.15 14.47-15.83 14.2-15.9 </p><p>levels show a large discrepancy. This might be due, in part, to nutrition (our animals were not fasted before bleeding) and to general excitement or anxiety while being an- esthetized. It is known, for example, that irritation and anxiety promote the release of adrenalin which in turn stimulates carbohydrate metabolism. Coldman and Good (1967) found elevated glucose levels in cats while using ether as an anesthetic. </p><p>The hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white blood cell levels of the spotted skunk are well within the range of values obtained in the other studies examined (Hock, 1966; Mays and Lowe, 1968; Sealander, 1964; Seal et al., 1967; Timmons and Marques, 1969; Youatt et al., 1961; Valdivieso and Tamsitt, 1971). The red blood cell level is somewhat higher than most studies, but does agree with values given by Seal et al. (1967) for the Amer- ican black bear sampled in November. We experienced some difficulty with agglutination, during counting, which may have influenced our results to some degree. </p><p>February 1974 207 </p></li><li><p>JOURNAL OF MAMMALOGY JOURNAL OF MAMMALOGY </p><p>In summary, these data provide the first information regarding blood physiology of the spotted skunk. The values obtained seem to be in general agreement with those ob- tained for other mammals. </p><p>The authors would like to thank Mr. Tom Mabry for help in capturing the skunks, Miss Marie Tullos for aid during bleeding, and the Drs. Pathology Service, Jonesboro, Arkansas, for their generous use of the SMA 12/60 Autoanalyser. This study was financed, in part, by a University of Arkansas at Little Rock Faculty Research Grant. </p><p>LITERATURE CITED </p><p>COLDMAN, M. F., AND W. GOOD. 1967. The distribution of sodium, potassium, and glucose in the blood of some mammals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 21:201-206. </p><p>HOCK, R. J. 1966. Analysis of the blood of American black bears. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 19:285-289. </p><p>MAYS, A., JR., AND F. M. LOWE. 1968. Hemograms of laboratory-confined opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 153:800-802. </p><p>SEAL, U. S., W. R. SWAIM, AND A. W. ERICKSON. 1967. Hematology of the Ursidae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 22:451-460. </p><p>SEALANDER, J. A. 1964. The influence of body size, season, sex, age, and other factors upon some blood parameters of small mammals. J. Mamm., 45:598-616. </p><p>STEVENSON, A. B. et al. 1959. The normal blood chemistry of the beaver. (Castor canadensis). Canadian J. Zool., 37:9-14. </p><p>TIMMONS, E. H., AND P. A. MARQUES. 1969. Blood chemical and Hematological studies in the laboratory-confined, unanesthetized opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Lab. Animal Care, 19:342-344. </p><p>VALDIVIESO, D., AND J. R. TAMSITT. 1971. Hematological data from tropical American bats. Canadian J. Zool., 49:31-36. </p><p>YOUATT, W. G. et al. 1961. Hematologic data on some small mammals. Blood, 18:758- 763. </p><p>GARY A. HEIDT AND JAMES HARGRAVES, Dept. of Biology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, 72204. Submitted 24 April 1973. Accepted 21 August 1973. </p><p>PROBABLE EXTINCTION OF THE KOREAN STOCK OF THE GRAY WHALE (ESCHRICHTIUS ROBUSTUS) </p><p>Disappearance of the Korean stock of gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) has been hy- pothesized for several years. My observations support this hypothesis. This stock ranged from the northern part of the Sea of Okhotsk to the southern tip of the Republic of Korea. The last individual gray whale of this stock apparently was taken from the eastern coast of Korea in 1933 (Mizue, 1951). Since that time, many conservationists and marine mam- malogists had hoped for a recovery of gray whale in this area. The extermination of this stock, however, can be confirmed only by repeated negative findings. </p><p>The Korean stock of gray whale, the western counterpart of the California gray whale, once migrated between its summer feeding grounds in the northern part of the Sea of Okhotsk and its winter calving grounds among the islands of the southern tip of the Republic of Korea. They followed the shore line closely and could be seen off the coast of central Korea from November through January on their southern migration and from March through May on their northern migration (Andrews, 1914). The Korean stock was relatively unexploited until about 1899. The Oriental Whaling Co., Ltd. of Osaka, Japan, caught 1474 gray whales from 1910 to 1933 off Ulsan, Korea. Rice and Wolman </p><p>In summary, these data provide the first information regarding blood physiology of the spotted skunk. The values obtained seem to be in general agreement with those ob- tained for other mammals. </p><p>The authors would like to thank Mr. Tom Mabry for help in capturing the skunks, Miss Marie Tullos for aid during bleeding, and the Drs. Pathology Service, Jonesboro, Arkansas, for their generous use of the SMA 12/60 Autoanalyser. This study was financed, in part, by a University of Arkansas at Little Rock Faculty Research Grant. </p><p>LITERATURE CITED </p><p>COLDMAN, M. F., AND W. GOOD. 1967. The distribution of sodium, potassium, and glucose in the blood of some mammals. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 21:201-206. </p><p>HOCK, R. J. 1966. Analysis of the blood of American black bears. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 19:285-289. </p><p>MAYS, A., JR., AND F. M. LOWE. 1968. Hemograms of laboratory-confined opossums (Didelphis virginiana). J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 153:800-802. </p><p>SEAL, U. S., W. R. SWAIM, AND A. W. ERICKSON. 1967. Hematology of the Ursidae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 22:451-460. </p><p>SEALANDER, J. A. 1964. The influence of body size, season, sex, age, and other factors upon some blood parameters of small mammals. J. Mamm., 45:598-616. </p><p>STEVENSON, A. B. et al. 1959. The normal blood chemistry of the beaver. (Castor canadensis). Canadian J. Zool., 37:9-14. </p><p>TIMMONS, E. H., AND P. A. MARQUES. 1969. Blood chemical and Hematological studies in the laboratory-confined, unanesthetized opossum, Didelphis virginiana. Lab. Animal Care, 19:342-344. </p><p>VALDIVIESO, D., AND J. R. TAMSITT. 1971. Hematological data from tropical American bats. Canadian J. Zool., 49:31-36. </p><p>YOUATT, W. G. et al. 1961. Hematologic data on some small mammals. Blood, 18:758...</p></li></ul>