biology of human aging “ cellular aging ” chapter 3

Download Biology of Human Aging “ Cellular Aging ” Chapter 3

Post on 25-Dec-2015




2 download

Embed Size (px)


  • Slide 1
  • Biology of Human Aging Cellular Aging Chapter 3
  • Slide 2
  • Outline Cell Components Plasma membrane Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Mitochondria Centrioles Cytoskeleton Validity of Cell-Culture Findings Specific Cellular Changes during Aging Membrane Changes Nuclear Changes Cytoplasmic Changes Robisomal Changes Mitochondrial Changes Lysosomal Changes
  • Slide 3
  • Central concept: many of the aspects of aging seen at the organ level are the results of changes that occur with age at the cellular level Loss of immune competency Age-related senility Focus of the chapter: understand cellular changes that occur with aging even in the absence of disease Cellular changes that might influence aging are expected to: Be progressive Be deleterious Be irreversible
  • Slide 4
  • Cells are highly organized units and contain: 1.Various types of structures called organelles 2.Chemical substances: inclusions (glycogen granules and lipid droplets) 3.Nucleus: controls cellular functioning 4.Cytoplasm: semi-fluid substance that surrounds the nucleus 5.Plasma membrane (cell membrane): surrounds the cytoplasm; Forms the cells outer boundary Provides point of attachment for cell components Acts as barrier, regulates movement of material into and out of cell Selectively permeable
  • Slide 5
  • Plasma Membrane Composed primarily of Phospholipids Associated proteins & lipids are either embedded in the lipid or loosely bound to the membrane surface Some proteins extend completely through the membrane forming channels that connect cytoplasm with intercellular space Carbohydrates often attached to the outer surface of plasma membrane All the material that enter a cell must pass through plasma membrane; the ease of the passage depends largely on the permeability
  • Slide 6
  • Fluid Mosaic Model Figure 3.3
  • Slide 7
  • Nucleus Most cells contain a single nucleus Cells lacking nucleus: incapable of protein synthesis &/or cell division (RBC) Nuclear membrane separates the nucleus from the rest of the cell Contain genetic material Chromatin, nucleosome, Codes messages that direct synthesis of certain proteins confers specific functions to each specific cell type Central dogma of molecular biology: DNA RNA Proteins Most proteins act as enzymes or structural proteins All cells in an individual contain full genetic complement of DNA (except reproductive cells) Proteins are produced at different times due to various control mechanisms
  • Slide 8
  • DNA unable to pass through nuclear pores: Central dogma of molecular biology: DNA RNA Proteins RNA carries the DNA instructions to ribosomes in the cytoplasm protein synethesis Transcription: DNA mRNA Translation: mRNA Proteins Different types of RNA: mRNA (messenger): contains codes from DNA that specify the exact aa (amino acid) sequence tRNA (transfer): combine with free aa in the cytoplasm and carry them to ribosomes rRNA (ribosomal): join w/ proteins in the cytoplasm to form ribosomes
  • Slide 9
  • From DNA to Protein Figure 3.34
  • Slide 10
  • Cytoplasm mRNA is being translated to protein rRNA and tRNA play a role in protein synthesis There are other important organelles within the cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Mitochondria Centrioles Cytoskeleton
  • Slide 11
  • Structure of a Generalized Cell Figure 3.2
  • Slide 12
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Network of membranous tubules that form channels extending throughout the cytoplasm of the cell Contains enzymes involved in the synthesis of substances (fatty acids and steroids) Rough vs. smooth ER Ribosomes Small cytoplasmic organelles Free floating or attached to ribosomes Sites of protein synthesis (aa assemble to protein) in response to the instructions from DNA Ribosome travels along an mRNA molecule and reads its message tRNA delivers the aa, and ribosome assembles them in the sequence directed by mRNA
  • Slide 13
  • Golgi Apparatus Cytoplasmic organelles consisting of flattened, membranous sacs Enzymes; add carbohydrates to proteins (glycoprotein) or add fatty acids or other groups to proteins Eventually become membranous pinch off from the sac vesicle move to surface fuse w/plasma membrane release their content into exterior of the cell Golgi apparatus most evident in secretory cells
  • Slide 14
  • Lysosome Appear granular when inactive, but form vesicles when active Surrounded by membrane and contain strong digestive enzymes capable of breaking down proteins, carbohydrate, DNA, RNA Particularly abundant in phagocytic cells (macrophages) Assist in the removal of dead or dying cells and foreign material
  • Slide 15
  • Mitochondria Oval structures, double membrane Outer membrane which forms the boundary is smooth Inner membrane, filled w/ a semi-fluid matrix, has folds and extend into the central portion of the mitochondrion Inner membrane contains enzymes capable of sequential break down of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins energy, carbon dioxide, and water Generates metabolic energy for cellular activities Contains it own supply of DNA, ribosomes and capable of self- duplication Metabolically active cells contain more mitochondria than less active cells Major role in programmed cell death (PCD or apoptosis)
  • Slide 16
  • Centrioles Cylinder-shaped structures, mostly located close to the nucleus Involved in cell division Consist of parallel microtubules that are capable of self-duplication During division: centrioles divide form two pairs one pair move to each end of the cell A network of microtubules, spindle fibers, develop b/w the two pair, involved in the redistribution of chromosomes into daughter cells Cytoskeleton Three dimensional network of tiny fibrils (microfilaments) and tubules (microtubules) Cytoskeleton components maintain shape & organization of the cells Involved in the transport of substances with the cell, cell division, movement
  • Slide 17
  • Some of the cells in older organism dont function as effectively as they used to. Functional alterations occur at different rates as not all functional capacities decline at the same rate during aging Whether the changes observed in individual cells are the direct result of a programmed series of events occurring inside the cells or indirect effects due to random changes that occur outside the cells Growing cells in culture (in vitro vs. in vivo) How valid are the data? Do the data coincide closely enough w/ growth patterns of cells in vivo? Evidence: cultured cells behave similarly to the cells in the body. Cell division; specific to each cell type Post-mitotic state in culture resembles senescent changes in the body Validity of cell-culture findings
  • Slide 18
  • Cultured cells can be kept frozen in liquid nitrogen Though mitotic activity is halted by freezing, it can be resumed by thawing the cells Total number of divisions the cells will undergo remains the same Test: whether limitation of mitotic activity is due to culture medium: Old + young cells, controls: 1) old cells 2) young cells Measure the time it took each type of cell cease dividing and die The medium is not the limiting factors; in the same medium old cells stopped dividing while young cells still divide (same rate as controls)
  • Slide 19
  • Validity of cell-culture findings Limited capacity and intrinsic regulation of the cell to divide Skin transplanted from young animals survive longer Progeria People undergo changes that somewhat resemble accelerated aging Begins during 1 st year of life and median age at death is 13 years Slower than normal growth rate, loss and graying of hair Skin & blood vessel calcification, skeletal deformities (expanded skull) Fibroblasts have shorter life span in culture media Age-related changes in body cells may be reflected in cell culture, thus, cultured cells can provide a valid comparison for in vivo cellular aging
  • Slide 20
  • Both in vivo & in vitro studies indicate that the capacity of a cell to undergo division generally exceed the number of divisions the cells undergo during a normal lifetime. Thus, aging changes occurring in vivo that are affected by cell division are associated more w/ the rate of division than w/ actual cessation of division Q: What causes the limitation/restriction on cell division? Progressive imbalance in normal cellular compartments may limit division Formation of certain cellular organelles does not occur at the same rate, in succeeding generations these become less abundant; unable to support cell division Progressive generation of organelles during cell division imbalance that becomes lethal to cell (cellular senescence in fungi assoc. w/ proliferation of abnormal mito. DNA) changes in certain nuclear DNA sequences occur w/ aging in vertebrates
  • Slide 21
  • Specific Cellular Changes During Aging Cellular aging is influenced by complex cellular functions that cause changes in protein synthesis and turnover, and reduce the efficiency of DNA repair and enzymatic activity Plasma membrane regulates transport of molecules into & out of cell. Functional changes: Alterations in transport of ions, nutrients, aa, & protein across membrane Structural changes affect cell membrane permeability (e.g., less fluid in ER of old animals) due to increase in saturated fatty acids in membrane Membrane Changes
  • Slide 22


View more >