Bio Adhesive

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<p>ASSIGNMENT ON: SUBJECT : Biotechnology ofFermentation and Biotransformation-II</p> <p>TOPIC : Adhesive ProteinBiopolymer, (Byssal Adhesive, Rubber Polymerase)SUBMITTED BY: NAVREET BDAENG M.S.c. Industrial Biotechnology IInd Semester</p> <p>CONTENTS : INTRODUCTION: BIOADHESIVE AND BIOPOLYMER. TYPES OF ADHESIVES. BYSSAL ADHESIVES. NATURAL RUBBER AND RUBBER POLYMERASE: PRODUCTION PROCESS FEEDSTOCKS FOR BIOPLASTIC. COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS. CONCLUSION. REFERENCES.</p> <p>IntroductionBioadhesiveS:Bioadhesives are natural polymeric materials that act as adhesives. The term is sometimes used more loosely to describe a glue formed synthetically from biological monomers such as sugars, or to mean a synthetic material designed to adhere to biological tissue. Bioadhesives may consist of a variety of substances, but proteins and carbohydrates feature prominently. Proteins such as gelatin and carbohydrates such as starch have been used as general-purpose glues by man for many years, but typically their performance shortcomings have seen them replaced by synthetic alternatives. Highly effective adhesives found in the natural world are currently under investigation but not yet in widespread commercial use. For example, bioadhesives secreted by microbes and by marine molluscs and crustaceans are being researched with a view to biomimicry. Bioadhesives are of commercial interest because they tend to be biocompatible, i.e. useful for biomedical applications involving skin or other body tissue. Some work in wet environments and under water, while others can stick to low surface energy non-polar surfaces like plastics. In recent years, the synthetic adhesives industry has been impacted by environmental concerns and health and safety issues relating to hazardous ingredients, volatile organic compound emissions, and difficulties in recycling or remediating adhesives derived from petrochemical feedstocks. Rising oil prices may also stimulate commercial interest in biological alternatives to synthetic adhesives.</p> <p>BIOPOLYMERSBiopolymers are polymers that occur in nature. Carbohydrates and proteins, for example, are biopolymers. Many biopolymers are already being produced commercially on large scales, although they usually are not used for the production of plastics. Even if only a small percentage of the biopolymers already being produced were used in the production of plastics, it would significantly decrease our dependence on manufactured, non-renewable resources. </p> <p>cellulose is the most plentiful carbohydrate in the world; 40 percent of all organic matter is cellulose! starch is found in corn (maize), potatoes, wheat, tapioca (cassava), and some other plants. Annual world production of starch is well over 70 billion pounds, with much of it being used for non-food purposes, like making paper, cardboard, textile sizing, and adhesives. collagen is the most abundant protein found in mammals. Gelatin is denatured collagen, and is used in sausage casings, capsules for drugs and vitamin preparations, and other miscellaneous industrial applications including photography. casein, commercially produced mainly from cow's skimmed milk, is used in adhesives, binders, protective coatings, and other products. soy protein and zein (from corn) are abundant plant proteins. They are used for making adhesives and coatings for paper and cardboard. polyesters are produced by bacteria, and can be made commercially on large scales through fermentation processes. They are now being used in biomedical applications.</p> <p>A number of other natural materials can be made into polymers that are biodegradable. For example:</p> <p>lactic acid is now commercially produced on large scales through the fermentation of sugar feedstocks obtained from sugar beets or sugar cane, or from the conversion of starch from corn, potato peels, or other starch source. It can be polymerized to produce poly(lactic acid), which is already finding commercial applications in drug encapsulation and biodegradable medical devices.</p> <p>triglycerides can also be polymerized. Triglycerides make up a large part of the storage lipids in animal and plant cells. Over sixteen billion pounds of vegetable oils are produced in the United States each year, mainly from soybean, flax, and rapeseed. Triglycerides are another promising raw material for producing plastics.</p> <p>These natural raw materials are abundant, renewable, and biodegradable, making them attractive feedstocks for bioplastics, a new generation of environmentally friendly plastics.</p> <p>Starch-based bioplastics are important not only because starch is the least expensive biopolymer but because it can be processed by all of the methods used for synthetic polymers, like film extrusion and injection moulding. Eating utensils, plates, cups and other products have been made with starchbased plastics. Interest in soybeans has been revived, recalling Ford's early efforts. In research laboratories it has been shown that soy protein, with and without cellulose extenders, can be processed with modern extrusion and injection moulding methods. Many water soluble biopolymers such as starch, gelatin, soy protein, and casein form flexible films when properly plasticized. Although such films are regarded mainly as food coatings, it is recognized that they have potential use as nonsupported stand-alone sheeting for food packaging and other purposes. Starch-protein compositions have the interesting characteristic of meeting nutritional requirements for farm animals. Hog feed, for example, is recommended to contain 13-24% protein, complemented with starch. If starch-protein plastics were commercialized, used food containers and serviceware collected from fast food restaurants could be pasteurized and turned into animal feed. Polyesters are now produced from natural resources-like starch and sugarsthrough large-scale fermentation processes, and used to manufacture waterresistant bottles, eating utensils, and other products.</p> <p>Poly(lactic acid) has become a significant commercial polymer. Its clarity makes it useful for recyclable and biodegradable packaging, such as bottles, yogurt cups, and candy wrappers. It has also been used for food service ware, lawn and food waste bags, coatings for paper and cardboard, and fibers-for clothing, carpets, sheets and towels, and wall coverings. In biomedical applications, it is used for sutures, prosthetic materials, and materials for drug delivery. Triglycerides have recently become the basis for a new family of sturdy composites. With glass fiber reinforcement they can be made into longlasting durable materials with applications in the manufacture of agricultural equipment, the automotive industry, construction, and other areas. Fibers other than glass can also be used in the process, like fibers from jute, hemp, flax, wood, and even straw or hay. If straw could replace wood in composites now used in the construction industry, it would provide a new use for an abundant, rapidly renewable agricultural commodity and at the same time conserve less rapidly renewable wood fiber.</p> <p>The widespread use of these new plastics will depend on developing technologies that can be successful in the marketplace. That in turn will partly depend on how strongly society is committed to the concepts of resource conservation, environmental preservation, and sustainable technologies. There are growing signs that people indeed want to live in greater harmony with nature and leave future generations a healthy planet. If so, bioplastics will find a place in the current Age of Plastics.</p> <p>Examples of bioadhesives in natureOrganisms may secrete bioadhesives for use in attachment, construction and obstruction, as well as in predation and defense. Examples include their use for: </p> <p>colonization of surfaces (e.g. bacteria, algae, fungi, mussels, barnacles). tube building by polychaete worms, which live in underwater mounds. insect egg, larval or pupal attachment to surfaces (vegetation, rocks), and insect mating plugs host attachment by blood-feeding ticks</p> <p>nest-building by some insects, and also by some fish (e.g. the three-spined stickleback) defense by Notaden frogs and by sea cucumbers prey capture in spider webs and by velvet worms</p> <p>Some bioadhesives are very strong. For example, adult barnacles achieve pull-off forces as high as 2 MPa (2 N/mm2). Silk dope can also be used as a glue by arachnids and insects.</p> <p>TYPES of adhesions:Temporary adhesionOrganisms such as limpets and sea stars use suction and mucus-like slimes to create Stefan Adhesion, which makes pull-off much harder than lateral drag; this allows both attachment and mobility. Spores, embryos and juvenile forms may use temporary adhesives (often glycoproteins) to secure their initial attachment to surfaces favorable for colonization. Tacky and elastic secretions that act as pressure sensitive adhesives, forming immediate attachments on contact, are preferable in the context of self-defense and predation. Molecular mechanisms include non-covalent interactions and polymer chain entanglement. Many biopolymers - proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, and mucopolysaccharides may be used to form hydrogels that contribute to temporary adhesion.</p> <p>Permanent adhesionMany permanent bioadhesives (e.g., the oothecal foam of the mantis) are generated by a "mix to activate" process that involves hardening via covalent cross-linking. On non-polar surfaces the adhesive mechanisms may include van der Waals forces, whereas on polar surfaces mechanisms such as hydrogen bonding and binding to (or forming bridges via) metal cations may allow higher sticking forces to be achieved.</p> <p>Microorganisms use acidic polysaccharides (molecular mass around 100 000 Da).</p> <p>Marine bacteria use carbohydrate exopolymers to achieve bond strengths to glass of up to 500 000 N/m2 . Marine inverterbrates commonly employ protein-based glues for irreversible attachment. Some mussels achieve 800 000 N/m2 on polar surfaces and 30 000 N/m2 on non-polar surfaces . Some algae and marine invertebrates use polyphenolic proteins containing L-DOPA Proteins in the oothecal foam of the mantis are cross-linked covalently by small molecules related to L-DOPA via a tanning reaction that is catalysed by catechol oxidase or polyphenol oxidase enzymes.</p> <p>L-DOPA is a tyrosine residue that bears an additional hydroxyl group. The twin hydroxyl groups in each side-chain compete well with water for binding to surfaces, form polar attachments via hydrogen bonds, and chelate the metals in mineral surfaces. The Fe(L-DOPA3) complex can itself account for much crosslinking and cohesion in mussel plaque, but in addition the iron catalyses oxidation of the L-DOPA to reactive quinone free radicals, which go on to form covalent bonds. An example of permanent adhesion is byssal adhesive.</p> <p>MucoadhesionA more specific term than bioadhesion is mucoadhesion. Most mucosal surfaces such as in the gut or nose are covered by a layer of mucus. Adhesion of a matter to this layer is hence called mucoadhesion. Mucoadhesive agents are usually polymers containing hydrogen bonding groups that can be used in wet formulations or in dry powders for drug delivery purposes. The mechanisms behind mucoadhesion have not yet been fully elucidated, but a generally accepted theory is that close contact must first be established between the mucoadhesive agent and the mucus, followed by interpenetration of the mucoadhesive polymer and the mucin and finishing with the formation of entanglements and chemical bonds between the macromolecules.In the case of a dry polymer powder, the initial adhesion is most likely achieved by water movement from the mucosa into the formulation, which has also been shown to lead to dehydration and strengthening of the mucus layer. The subsequent formation of van der Waals, hydrogen and, in the case of a positively charged polymer, electrostatic bonds between the mucins and the hydrated polymer promotes prolonged adhesion.</p> <p>Byssal adhesiveByssus generally refers to a filament created by certain kinds of marine and freshwater bivalve molluscs, which use it to attach themselves to rocks, substrates, or sea beds. In edible mussels the inedible byssus is commonly known as the "beard", and is removed before cooking. Byssus specifically refers to the long, fine, silky threads secreted by the large Mediterranean pen shell, Pinna nobilis. The byssus threads from this Pinna species can be up to 6 cm in length and have historically been made into cloth. The secret to the mussels' staying power is tiny threads, called byssus. These tentacles, which can reach more than two inches in length, are made of a protein with a high level of stuff called phenolic hydroxyls. Many species of mussels secrete byssus threads to anchor themselves on hard surfaces, with Families including the Arcidae, Mytilidae, Anomiidae, Pinnidae, Pectinidae, Dreissenidae, and Unionidae . When a mussel's foot encounters a crevice, it creates a vacuum chamber by forcing out the air and arching up, similar to a plumber's plunger unclogging a drain. The byssus, which is made of keratin, quinone-tanned proteins (polyphenolic proteins), and other proteins, is spewed into this chamber in liquid form, and bubbles into a sticky foam. By curling its foot into a tube and pumping the foam, the mussel produces sticky threads about the size of a human hair. The mussel then varnishes the threads with another protein, resulting in an adhesive. Byssus is a remarkable adhesive, one that is neither degraded nor deformed by water, as are synthetic adhesives. This property has spurred genetic engineers to insert mussel DNA into yeast cells for translating the genes into the appropriate proteins. California mussels Mytilus californianus owe their tenacity to a holdfast known as the byssus, a fibrous extracellular structure that ends distally in flattened adhesive plaques. The fabrication of strong and durable adhesive bonds between macromolecules and metal or mineral surfaces in a wet environment is one of the most persistent challenges for modern adhesive technology. Mussels (Mytilus) thrive despite persistent surf and tides thanks in part to a robust holdfast structure called the byssus, which consists of a bundle of threads each of which is tipped</p> <p>distally by an adhesive plaque that bonds to mineral and metal surfaces. The adhesive strategies of mussels and other sessile marine invertebrates are increasingly envisioned as paradigms for designing tough water-resistant adhesives. The biochemistry of mussel byssus has been investigated in primarily two species, Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis, both relatively sheltered species . Not surprisingly, all of the proteins characterized so far in the two species show a very high degree of sequence homology. At least six different proteins have been characterized from freshly secreted adhesive plaques of M. edulis. These are mefp1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 and...</p>