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    DIGITAL DESIGNDIGITAL DESIGNTHIRD EDITIONTHIRD EDITION

    M. MORRIS MANOM. MORRIS MANO

    CHAPTER 1 : BINARYCHAPTER 1 : BINARYSYSTEMS PROBLEMSSYSTEMS PROBLEMS

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    1.11.1--) List the octal and the hexadecimal numbers) List the octal and the hexadecimal numbers

    from 16 to 32. Using A and B for the last twofrom 16 to 32. Using A and B for the last two

    digits, list the numbers from 10 to 26 in base 12digits, list the numbers from 10 to 26 in base 12 ..

    Octal :16 = 8 x 2 + 8 x 0 => (16)10 = (20)8

    32 = 8 x 4 + 8 x 0 => (32)10 = (40)8

    20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40

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    Hexadecimal :

    16 = 16 x 1 + 16 x 0 => (16)10 = (10)16

    32 = 16 x 2 + 16 x 0 => (32)10 = (20)8

    10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 1A, 1B , 1C, 1D, 1E, 1F, 20

    Base-12 :

    10 = 12 x A => (10)10 = (A)12

    26 = 12 x 2 + 12 x 2 => (26)10

    = (22)12

    A, B, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 1A, 1B, 20, 21, 22

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    1.21.2--) What is the exact number of bytes in a) What is the exact number of bytes in a

    system that contains (a) 32K byte, (b)64M bytes,system that contains (a) 32K byte, (b)64M bytes,

    and (c)6.4G byteand (c)6.4G byte ??

    (a) 32K byte:

    1K = 2 = 1,024

    32K = 32 x 2 = 32 x 1,024 = 32,768

    32K byte = 32,768 byte

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    (b) 64M byte:

    1M = 2 = 1,048,576

    64M = 64 x 2 = 64 x 1,048,576 = 67,108,864

    64M byte = 67,108,864 byte

    (c) 6.4G byte:

    1G = 2 = 1,073,741,824

    6.4G = 6.4 x 2 = 6.4 x 1,073,741,824 = 6,871,747,674

    6.4G byte = 6,871,747,674 byte

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    1.31.3--) What is the largest binary number that can) What is the largest binary number that can

    be expressed with 12 bits? What is the equivalentbe expressed with 12 bits? What is the equivalent

    decimal and hexadecimal ?decimal and hexadecimal ?

    Binary:

    (111111111111)2

    Decimal:

    (111111111111)2 = 1x 2+ 1 x 2 + 1 x 2 +..+ 1 x 2 + 1 x 2

    (111111111111)2 = 4,095

    Hexadecimal:

    (1111 1111 1111)2

    F F F

    (FFF)16=

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    1.41.4--) Convert the following numbers with the) Convert the following numbers with the

    indicated bases to decimal : (4310)indicated bases to decimal : (4310)55 , and (198), and (198)1212

    ..

    (4310)5 = 0 x 5 + 1 x 5 + 3 x 5 + 4 x 5 = 0 + 5 + 75 + 500

    (4310)5 = 580

    (198)12 = 8 x 12 + 9 x 12 + 1 x 12 = 8 + 108 + 144

    (198)12 = 260

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    1.51.5--) Determine the base of the numbers in each) Determine the base of the numbers in each

    case for the following operations to be correct :case for the following operations to be correct :

    (a) 14/2 = 5 ; (b) 54/4 = 13 ; (c) 24+17 = 40 .(a) 14/2 = 5 ; (b) 54/4 = 13 ; (c) 24+17 = 40 .

    (a) (14)a / (2)a = (5)a (4 x a + 1 x a) / (2 x a) = 5 x a

    (4 + a) / 2 = 5

    4 + a = 10

    a = 6

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    (b) (54)b / (4)b = (13)b (4 x b + 5 x b) / (4 x b) = 3 x b + 1 x b

    (4 + 5b) / 4 = 3 + b

    4 + 5b = 12 + 4b

    b = 8

    (4 x c + 2 x c) + (7 x c + 1 x c) = 4 x c

    4 + 2c + 7 + c = 4c

    c = 11

    (c) (24)c + (17)c = (40)c

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    1.61.6--) The solution to the quadratic equation x) The solution to the quadratic equation x --

    11x + 22 = 0 is x=3 and x=6. What is the base11x + 22 = 0 is x=3 and x=6. What is the baseof the numbers?of the numbers?

    x - 11x + 22 = (x 3) . (x 6)

    x - 11x + 22 = x - (6 + 3)x + (6.3)

    (11)a = (6)a + (3)a

    1 + a = 6 + 3

    a = 8

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    1.71.7--) Express the following numbers in decimal :) Express the following numbers in decimal :

    (10110.0101)(10110.0101)22 , (16.5), (16.5)1616 , (26.24), (26.24)88 ..

    (1 0 1 1 0 . 0 1 0 1 )24 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4

    (10110.0101)2 = 2 + 4 + 16 + (1/4) + (1/16)

    (10110.0101)2= 22.3125

    = 2 + 2 + (2^4) +(2^-2) + (2^-4)

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    (1 6 . 5 )16

    1 0 -1

    (16.5)16 = 6 + 16 + (5/16)

    (16.5)16 = 22.3125

    (2 6 . 2 4 )8

    1 0 -1 -2

    (26.24)8 = 6 + 16 + (2/8) + (4/64)

    (26.24)8 = 22.3125

    = 6 x16 + 1x16 + 5 x(16^-1)

    = 6 x8 + 2x8 + 2x(8^-1) + 4 x(8^-2)

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    1.81.8--) Convert the following binary numbers to) Convert the following binary numbers to

    hexadecimal and to decimal : (a) 1.11010 , (b)hexadecimal and to decimal : (a) 1.11010 , (b)

    1110.10 . Explain why the decimal answer in (b)1110.10 . Explain why the decimal answer in (b)

    is 8 times that of (a) .is 8 times that of (a) .

    (a) (1 . 1101 0 )2= (1 . D )16 = 1x16 + Dx(16^-1)

    1 D 0 0 -1

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    (a)(a) 1.101.10--) Convert the decimal number 345 to) Convert the decimal number 345 to

    binary in two ways :binary in two ways :

    Convert directly to binary;Convert directly to binary;

    Convert first to hexadecimal, then fromConvert first to hexadecimal, then from

    hexadecimal to binary. Which method ishexadecimal to binary. Which method is

    faster ?faster ?

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    (345)10Number Divided by 2 Remainder

    345 345/2=172 1

    172 172/2=86 0

    86 86/2=43 0 43 43/2=21 1

    21 21/2=10 1

    10 10/2=5 0

    5 5/2=2 1

    2 2/2=1 1

    Method 1:

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    Method 2:

    Number Divided by 16 Remainder

    345 345/16=21 9

    21 21/16=1 5

    (345)10=(159)16 (1 101 1001)2

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    1.111.11--) Do the following conversion problems :) Do the following conversion problems :

    (a) Convert decimal 34.4375 to binary .(a) Convert decimal 34.4375 to binary .

    (b) Calculate the binary equivalent of 1/3(b) Calculate the binary equivalent of 1/3

    out to 8 places.out to 8 places.

    Then convert from binary to decimal. HowThen convert from binary to decimal. How

    close is theclose is the

    result to 1/3 ?result to 1/3 ?

    (c) Convert the binary result in (b) into(c) Convert the binary result in (b) into

    hexadecimal. Thenhexadecimal. Then

    convert the result to decimal . Is the answerconvert the result to decimal . Is the answer

    the same ?the same ?

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    (a) 34.4375

    34 0.4375

    34:2=17 r=0

    17:2=8 r=1

    8:2=4 r=0

    4:2=2 r=0

    2:2=1 r=0

    34=(100010)2

    0.4375*2=0.875 r=0

    0.875*2=1.75 r=10.75*2=1.5 r=1

    0.5*2=1.0 r=1

    0*2=0 r=0

    0.43

    75=(0.01110)2

    34.4375=(100010.01110)234.4375=(100010.01110)2

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    (b) 1/3=0.3333

    0.33333*2=0.66666 r=0

    0.66666*2=1.33332 r=1

    0.33332*2=0.66664 r=0

    0.66664*2=1.33328 r=1.

    .

    .0.3333=(0.010101.)=0+ +0+

    1/8 +0+ 1/32 + =~0.33333

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    (c)

    0.010101010=0.0101 01010101

    (0.555..)16=5/16 +5/256 +5/4096 +=~0.33203

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    1.121.12--) Add and multiply the following numbers) Add and multiply the following numbers

    withoutwithoutconverting them to decimal.converting them to decimal.

    (a) Binary numbers 1011 and 101 .(a) Binary numbers 1011 and 101 .

    (b) Hexadecimal numbers 2E and 34 .(b) Hexadecimal numbers 2E and 34 .

    (a) 1011 (11) 1011(11)(a) 1011 (11) 1011(11)

    101 (5) 101(5)101 (5) 101(5)

    +__________ x_____+__________ x_____

    10000(16) 101110000(16) 1011

    00000000

    + 1011+ 1011

    __________________

    110111 (55)110111 (55)

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    (b)

    2E (46) 2E34 (52) 34

    +____ x____

    62 (98) B88A

    +____

    958(2392)

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    1.131.13--) Perform the following division in binary :) Perform the following division in binary :

    10111111011111 101 .101 .

    (1011111)2=95

    (101)2=5

    95/5=19 (10011)2

    1011111 101101 10011000111

    101

    0101

    101

    0000

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    1.141.14--) Find the 9s) Find the 9s-- and the 10sand the 10s--complement ofcomplement of

    the following decimal numbers :the following decimal numbers :(a) 98127634 (b) 72049900 (c) 10000000 (d)(a) 98127634 (b) 72049900 (c) 10000000 (d)

    00000000 .00000000 .

    9s comlements :

    (a) 99999999-98127634=01872365

    (b) 99999999-72049900=27950099(c) 99999999-10000000=89999999

    (d) 99999999-0000000=99999999

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    10s complements

    (a)100000000- 98127634= 01872366

    (b)100000000-72049900=27950100

    (c)100000000-10000000=90000000(d)100000000-0000000=00000000

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    1.151.15--) (a) Find the 16s) (a) Find the 16s--complement of AF3B .complement of A