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Frank K. Wolf and Stefan Yamada

Data Modeling in SAP NetWeaver BW

Bonn Boston

Contents at a Glance1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Introduction ................................................................ Basic Principles of Data Modeling .............................. Overview of SAP NetWeaver BW and SAP BusinessObjects .................................................. Structure of a BW Data Model ................................... 15 23 53 85

Reference Architecture for Data Modeling ................. 151 Business Content ........................................................ 185 Modeling the EDW ..................................................... 231 Data Modeling in the Reporting Layer ....................... 277 Case Studies ................................................................ 337 Data Modeling for Planning Applications .................. 403

11 Optimizing Data Retention ......................................... 447 12 Specific Data Modeling Issues in BW Projects ........... 471 13 A B C D E F G H I J Summary and Outlook ................................................ 487 Abbreviations .............................................................. 495 Transactions ................................................................ 501 Programs ..................................................................... 509 Function Modules and Includes .................................. 513 Tables .......................................................................... 517 Delta Processes ........................................................... 519 Posting Keys ................................................................ 521 Glossary ....................................................................... 527 Literature ..................................................................... 531 The Authors ................................................................. 535

Contents

1

Introduction .................................................................1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Target Audience ............................................................ Structure of the Book .................................................... How to Use This Book .................................................. Acknowledgments ........................................................

1517 18 20 21

2

Basic Principles of Data Modeling ..............................2.1 2.2 2.3 SAP NetWeaver BW as a Data Warehouse (DWH) System .............................................................. Conceptual, Logical, and Physical Data Model .............. Modeling Methods ....................................................... 2.3.1 ER Model ......................................................... 2.3.2 ADAPT Model .................................................. Conceptual Multidimensional Modeling ....................... 2.4.1 Dimensions ...................................................... 2.4.2 Key Figures ....................................................... Logical Multidimensional Modeling .............................. 2.5.1 Flat Reporting Structure ................................... 2.5.2 Star Schema ..................................................... 2.5.3 Galaxies ............................................................ 2.5.4 Fact Constellation Schema ................................ 2.5.5 Snowflake Schema ............................................ 2.5.6 BW Star Schema ............................................... 2.5.7 Operational Data Store (ODS) .......................... Physical Multidimensional Modeling ............................. Conclusion ....................................................................

2324 26 27 27 29 33 34 36 42 42 44 46 47 48 49 50 51 51

2.4

2.5

2.6 2.7

3

Overview of SAP NetWeaver BW and SAP BusinessObjects ...................................................3.1 SAP NetWeaver ............................................................ 3.1.1 Service Orientation ...........................................

5353 54

7

Contents

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.1.2 Key Areas of SAP NetWeaver ............................ Overview of SAP NetWeaver BW 7.x ............................. 3.2.1 Administration and Metadata Management ..... 3.2.2 Overview of Reporting and Analysis Using SAP NetWeaver BW ............................... 3.2.3 BEx Query Designer .......................................... 3.2.4 BEx Web Analyzer ............................................ 3.2.5 BEx Analyzer .................................................... 3.2.6 BEx WAD ......................................................... 3.2.7 BEx Report Designer ......................................... 3.2.8 BEx Broadcaster ................................................ 3.2.9 SAP NetWeaver Visual Composer ..................... SAP BusinessObjects ..................................................... 3.3.1 Web Intelligence .............................................. 3.3.2 Crystal Reports ................................................. 3.3.3 Xcelsius ............................................................ 3.3.4 SAP BusinessObjects Universes ......................... 3.3.5 SAP BusinessObjects Live Office ....................... 3.3.6 SAP BusinessObjects Explorer ........................... Conclusion ....................................................................

55 58 60 64 66 68 69 70 71 73 73 76 77 78 79 80 81 81 82

4

Structure of a BW Data Model ....................................4.1 InfoObjects ................................................................... 4.1.1 Characteristics .................................................. 4.1.2 Key Figures ....................................................... 4.1.3 Currencies and Units ........................................ 4.1.4 Times ............................................................... Master Data in SAP NetWeaver BW .............................. 4.2.1 Texts ................................................................ 4.2.2 Attributes ......................................................... 4.2.3 External Hierarchies .......................................... DSOs ............................................................................ 4.3.1 Creating DSOs .................................................. 4.3.2 Standard DSO .................................................. 4.3.3 Write-Optimized DSO ...................................... 4.3.4 DSO for Direct Update ..................................... 4.3.5 Summary Comparison of DSOs .........................

8586 88 99 110 112 113 113 116 120 128 129 131 134 135 136

4.2

4.3

8

Contents

4.4

4.5

4.6

InfoCubes ..................................................................... 4.4.1 Physical Data Model ......................................... 4.4.2 Modeling an InfoCube ...................................... Providers for Real-Time Data Access .............................. 4.5.1 Direct Access with VirtualProviders .................. 4.5.2 RDA ................................................................. Conclusion ....................................................................

137 138 139 141 142 145 148

5

Reference Architecture for Data Modeling .................. 1515.1 LSA ............................................................................... 5.1.1 Procedure when Developing a Customer-Specific LSA ...................................... 5.1.2 Layer Model of the Reference Architecture ....... 5.1.3 Domains ........................................................... 5.1.4 LSA Assistant Building Blocks ........................... 5.1.5 LSA and Flexibility When Making Changes ....... Naming Conventions .................................................... Information Integration as a Prerequisite for Cross-Sectional Evaluations ........................................... Conclusion .................................................................... 152 153 154 167 170 172 175 180 183

5.2 5.3 5.4

6

Business Content ......................................................... 1856.1 6.2 Basic Principles ............................................................. Master Data in SAP NetWeaver BW .............................. 6.2.1 Customer ......................................................... 6.2.2 Material ........................................................... 6.2.3 Organizational Characteristics ........................... 6.2.4 Accounts .......................................................... 6.2.5 Employees ........................................................ 6.2.6 Time Characteristics .......................................... 6.2.7 Currencies ........................................................ SAP NetWeaver BW in FI .............................................. 6.3.1 G/L Reporting .................................................. 6.3.2 Accounts Receivable Reporting ........................ 6.3.3 Accounts Payable Reporting ............................. 6.3.4 Asset Accounting Reporting ............................. 186 190 191 192 193 195 195 196 198 200 200 201 202 203

6.3

9

Contents

6.3.5 Special Purpose Ledger Reporting .................... 6.3.6 Travel Expense Reporting ................................. 6.4 SAP NetWeaver BW in CO ............................................ 6.4.1 Cost Center Reporting and Overhead Cost Reporting ................................................. 6.4.2 Product Cost Reporting .................................... 6.4.3 Profitability Analysis Reporting ......................... 6.4.4 Profit Center Reporting .................................... 6.5