basics of anaerobic digestion

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About the basics of anaerobic digestion, application and basics of laboratory analyisis.

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  • Introduction to anaerobic digestionBiogas STU

    ERASMUS EXCHANGE STUDENTSFebruary 2014___________________________Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Part 1: Waste

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Anthropogenic activities

    Anthropogenic activity (Anthropos means human, geny means origin): An effect or object originated by human activity

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Waste

    Definition of waste, according to the EU Waste Framework Directive:

    Any substance or object which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard

    Waste management: All the processes involved in dealing with the waste of human activities, including its prevention, reduction, collection, transport, handling, storage, recycling, processing, incinerating, landfill among others.

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Waste Recovery and Disposal Codes

    Waste related activities are classed as recovery (R) or disposal (D) as defined in the Waste Framework Directive (2006/12/EC).

    ...

    ...

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    European Waste Catalogue

    The European Waste Catalogue is a hierarchical list of waste descriptions, each given a code number.

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Philosophy of Waste Management

    Avoidance or preventionMinimization or reduction

    Reuse or recyclingMaterial recoveryEnergy recovery

    IncinerationLandfill disposal

    T H E OR Y

    R E A L I T Y

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Examples of Waste Management

    PET bottles

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Examples of Waste Management

    Blackwaters or sewage

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Examples of Waste Management

    08 01 13 - Sludge from paint or varnishcontaining organic solvents or otherdangerous substances

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Examples of Waste Management

    Automobile assembly plant

    Industry08 01 13

    15 01 01

    15 01 02

    16 01 22

    19 08 12

    Etc...

    External waste management, contracts with competent and authorized waste companies

    Internal waste management: Prevention, reduction and reuse policies; development of a waste separation strategy, improvement of the collection process. Analysis of material and energy recovery possibilities

    Internal waste management:Sales from selected materials for its material or energy recovery

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Waste recovery

    Waste recovery is the selective extraction of disposedmaterials for a specific next use, obtaining the maximumpractical benefits from products. It aims to reduce:

    The consumption of fresh raw materials

    Energy consumption

    Air pollution

    Water pollution

    Material recovery

    Energy recovery

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Material recovery of waste

    Recycling: Process of turning selected waste products into new (recycled) products

    Regeneration of organic and inorganic components (solvents, chemical substances, etc.)

    Compost: Aerobic processes that transform organic waste into a fertilizer or soil amendment

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Energy recovery of wasteWaste-to-energy

    Thermal technologies: Gasification (a set of chemical reactions that uses limited

    oxygen to convert a carbon-containing feedstock into a synthetic gas, or syngas CO2 + CO + H2)

    Pyrolysis (a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. For example, the bio-oils)

    Thermal depolymerization Plasma arc gasification or plasma gasification process (PGP)

    Biological technologies: Anaerobic digestion (Biogas CH4 + CO2) Fermentation (examples are ethanol, lactic acid, hydrogen) Other biological treatments

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Part 2: Anaerobic digestion

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Biological treatment processes

    Aerobic treatment process: Biological processes that occur in the presence of oxygen.

    Anaerobic treatment processes: Biological process that occur in the absence of oxygen.

    Substrate: It is the term used to denote the organic matter or nutrients that are converted during biological treatment

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    1. Energy contained in WW

    2. Organic carbon contained in WW

    Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic processes(Wastewater treatment processes)

    ANAEROBIC AEROBIC

    90 % biogas5 7 % synthesis of new biomass3 5 % losses

    60 % synthesis of new biomass40 % losses

    ANAEROBIC AEROBIC

    95 % biogas (CH4 + CO2)5 % synthesis of new biomass

    50 % CO250 % synthesis of new biomass

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Anaerobic digestion

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a series of processes in which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen.

    AD is often used for industrial or domestic purposes at managing waste.

    This process yields a final product of mainly methane and carbon dioxide, a rich biogas suitable for energy production, widely used as a renewable energy.

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    This degradation process can be divided up into four phases,named hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanation

    Anaerobic digestion

    Hydrolysis Acidogenesis Acetogenesis Methanogenesis

    Carbohydrates

    Fats

    Proteins

    Sugars

    Fatty acids

    Aminoacids

    Alcohols

    Acetic acid

    CO2 , H2

    CO2 , H2

    Ammonia

    BIOGASCH4 + CO2

    H2S

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Applications of anaerobic digestion

    Stabilization of sludge in WWTP

    Treatment of industrial wastewaters

    Landfill gas-to-energy

    Biogas stations

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Applications of anaerobic digestion

    Stabilization of sludge in WWTP

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Applications of anaerobic digestion

    Treatment of industrial wastewaters

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Applications of anaerobic digestion

    Landfill gas-to-energy

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Biogas stations

    The main goal of biogas stations is to produce a certain quantity of biogas from determined organic substrates, in order to generate a stable and continuous amount of energy.

    Applications of anaerobic digestion

    Pre-treatmentAnaerobic digestion

    SubstrateBiogas

    Digestate

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Biogas stations

    Substrates for biogas stations

    The substrate and the efficiency of its conversion intobiogas are the factors that will determine the viabilityof the process.

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    According to the solid content of the substrate:

    Dry fermentation technology (when TS is greater than ~25%)

    Types of biogas stations

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Anaerobic fermenters (PFR)

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Collectors of leachate or percolate for its recirculation into the sprinkling system

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Biogas holders

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Process control

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Cogeneration unit (CHP)

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Types of biogas stations

    Liquid or wet fermentation technology (TS less than ~15%)

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Part 3: Operation of a biogas station

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Process parameters

    Temperature

    pH-value (Hydrogen partial pressure)

    Concentration of microorganisms (Retention time)

    Inoculation and cultivation

    Mixing (agitation)

    Volume and organic load

    Type of substrate (organic content and C/N/P ratio)

    Presence or formation of inhibitors Flow recirculation and bypass

    Biogas recirculation and removal

    Specific surface of material (Mass transfer)

    Redox potential

    Etc...

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Process parameters

    Temperature operational ranges Cryophilic (0 20 C)

    Psychrophilic (20 30 C)

    Mesophilic (30 40 C)

    Thermophilic (40 60 C)

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuentesjuan.fuentes@stuba.sk

    Process parameters

    pH-value (Hydrogen partial pressure)

    The measure of the acidity or basicity of the tank aqueous environment. The pH optimum of the methane - forming microorganism is at pH = 6.7 7.5.

    Biogas digestion failure(Acid fermentation)

  • Ing. Juan Jos Chvez Fuent

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