baroque - caravaggio
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DESCRIPTIONbaroque Bernini Caravaggio
was not used until the 19th C and was used in a derogatory way. Taken from the world of pearl fishing meaning rough or irregular It was partly a reaction to the mannerist style of the 16th C It was committed to the expression of human emotion and ornamental Human drama is a central element highly expressive with theatrical gestures Rococo is used in architecture, music and literature Synonymous with lightness, highly decorative and stylish elegance Emerges in Paris in early 18th C spreads to the rest of Europe
Florence and Venice had up to this time dominated the art world Now the centre of art moves to Rome. After the reformation the Catholic world regains is authority in the counter reformation Artists were expected to endorse the authority of the Church The scripture was to be illustrated in a way that expressed the concerns of the Church This was the reason for a heightened emotional content and sense of realism
Bernini - Principle sculptor of the baroque And counter reformation.
Gianlorenzo Bernini's "Ecstasy of St. Teresa" (1647-52),
Caravaggio 1537 1610 He was born Michelangelo Merisi on Sept. 28, 1573, in Caravaggio, Italy. Orphaned at age 11, he was apprenticed to the painter Simone Peterzano of Milan for four years. At some time between 1588 and 1592, Caravaggio went to Rome and worked as an assistant to painters of lesser skill.
Self portrait as Bacchus
He was gained a reputation for being a violent and passionate man who could act very irrationally at times. This is not reflected in his art which is controlled passion and truthfulness. He looked upon the full reality of human existence with its highs and lows glories and sordid materiality Rembrandt is the true inheritor of Caravaggio in his truth and use of Chiaroscuro. The play of dramatic lighting is a technique created by Caravaggio and is his particular contribution to art development.
1. About 1595 he began to sell his paintings through a dealer. The dealer brought Caravaggio to the attention of Cardinal Francesco del Monte. 2. Through the cardinal, Caravaggio was commissioned, at age 24, to paint for the church of San Luigi dei Francesi.
Portrait of Cardinal Francesco Maria del Monte by Ottavio Leoni
In. its Contarelli Chapel Caravaggio's realistic naturalism first fully appeared in three scenes he created of the life of St.
The works caused public outcry, however, because of their realistic and dramatic nature. Despite violent criticism, his reputation increased and Caravaggio began to be envied. He had many encounters with the law during his stay in Rome. He was imprisoned
several assaults and forkilling an opponent after a disputed score in a game of court tennis
Caravaggio fled the city and kept moving between hiding places. He reached Naples, probably early in 1607, and painted there for a time, awaiting a pardon by the pope.
The Bacchus and the Lute Player. Caravaggios themes These are early genre paintings The lute Player is a seductive and sensual painting of a young boy often mistaken for a girl. Caravaggios sexual preference is clearly evident. He is not making any judgements he merely depicts sensual pleasure as the music of the Lute is to the ears so is the pleasure of the flesh
In the Bacchus painting the figure could be the same model and is holding a cup of wine pleasure of the palate and of the mind.
Caravaggio. The Lute-Player. c.1595-1596
It is an on-going theme of Caravaggio to show the transience of short lived enjoyment of all pleasure Also the brevity of life This is seen in the flowers that will soon wither away and even more so in the fruit which is shown overripe and a worm hole is visible The play of light is Caravaggios speciality here and he uses the technique of Chiaroscuro to show contrasts such as good evil, life death light and darkness.
The death of the virgin This picture depicts a genuinely dead body sprawled out with un-idealised and dirty feet sticking out She is surrounded by real people who express genuine emotion Mary Magdalene bends over in grief near a copper bowl an everyday piece of equipment she has been using to wash the body There is a scarlet cloth hung above the scene as a reference to: the sacrifice of blood, her divinity and upward movement of the soul. Usually the Virgin is depicted as an idealised figure ascending in clouds. The Carmelites were offended by Caravaggios depiction of the Virgin because of its uncompromising realism
1. There was a rumour that the model had been the drowned body of a prostitute 2. This was a great departure from previous depictions of this theme in which the Virgin is shown ascending in idealistic splendour upon the clouds.
3. There is a sense of real grief here and real death4. The rejection by the priests seems strange to us because of the pictures powerful authenticity but must be seen in the light of what they were used to seeing.
The Supper at Emmaus 1. The moment in the story is Caravaggio illustrating - The two disciples meet Jesus after his resurrection as they walk along a road. They stop at nightfall at an inn. At the dinner table they suddenly realise who this person is at the moment when he breaks the bread
The symbolism of the basket of fruit. 1. The basket of fruit is past its sell by date and is teetering on the edge of the table 2. The fruit is autumnal fruits and not Spring are chosen fro symbolic meanings 3. Pomegranate symbolises the crown of thorns 4. apples and figs mans sin and the 5. grapes symbolise the blood of Christ 6. The shadow on the table forms the shape of a fish, a subtle reference to Christianity
The poses of the 2 disciples.1. The disciple on the right is wearing the shell of a pilgrim
1. His outstretched arm pushes into our space showing the sophistication of Caravaggio drawing2. His arms echo the crucifixion and contrast with the torn elbow of the other disciple thrusting out of the picture 3. His gesture is arrested just as he is about to thrust himself upward in shock
The Christ Figure 1. Christ is depicted as a young man almost a youth in keeping with Caravaggios predilection for beautiful youths and not the usual depiction of a bearded and older Christ 2. He is serene and remote having transcended the agony of the cross 3. His face flooded with a clear light which falls from the left this is a standard ploy in Caravaggios painting
The lighting1. The innkeeper stands in the path of the light but cannot obscure the light on Christ and his shadow falls on the wall demonstrating his ignorance of the event
The Contarelli Chapel
In 1565 the French Monsignor Matteo Contarelli acquired a chapel in San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome, but when he died twenty years later it had not yet been decorated. Caravaggio was commissioned to execute two paintings for the lateral walls. Later an altarpiece was entrusted to Caravaggio in a separate contract the Feast of the Pentecost. This painting was rejected, the artist made another one (which was accepted) in a surprisingly brief time, receiving payment for this second work on 22 September.
Mathew and the Angel1. The first version of the St Matthew and the Angel was purchased by Marchese Vincenzo Giustiniani and then ended
Berlin2. where it was destroyed in the Second World War. 3. Only black and white photos are still available. The second version still stands over the altar today.
St Mathew and the angelFirst Version 1. the angel gently guides the saint's uncertain hand as he writes the gospel, 2. To our modern mind endearing and charming figure. 3. To the people of this time he is not the spiritual Giant usually depicted using Greek ideal type 4. Rather we see a slow-witted humbly attired commoner whose lack of eloquence and learning is clearly evident in his struggle to write 5. He lacks the grandeur and dignity required by renaissance types 6. Caravaggio makes a powerful statement, the dignity of the common man and Gods ability to use ordinary people to accomplish his will.
1. With his eyes wide open, and with heavy hands, he peers into the thick volumes on his knee. 2. It is not easy to believe he can write. 3. His angel has the greatest difficulty in leading his untrained hand to put the word of God into letters, which are far too big. 4. In doing so, the angel inclines his charming figure, whose shape can clearly be seen beneath his light garment. 5. And so can his androgynous face and long locks of hair, in contrast to the rough bald skull of St Matthew. 6. Against the almost black background, which has been trimmed on the left and at the top, we see the exquisite white of his enormous wings.
The Second Version 1. The first painting was criticised for Matthew's lack of decorum. 2. He was asked to repeat the painting in a more conventional manner
3. In the final version, likewise a splendid feat of imagination but certainly less fascinating than the first, the angel much more correctly counts on his fingers,4. in the traditional scholastic fashion, the arguments that the saint should take note of and develop.
A whirlwind of drapery Envelops the angel. The saint balances on his bench, in precarious equilibrium, like a modern schoolboy; but this time the unorthodox elements do not seem to have raised particular objections.
Caravaggio had tremendous confidence in his vision and although famed as an artist he continuously seemed to be offensive to the establishment. This is not really connected to his tempestuous temperament but rather his strong conviction as a highly sophisticated and individual artist.
The calling of St MathewThis painting is the pendant to the Martyrdom of St Matthew and hanging opposite in the Contarelli Chapel.
The sources The subject traditionally was represented either indoors or out; sometimes Saint Matthew is shown inside a building, with Christ outside (following the Biblical text) summoning him through a window. Both before and after Caravaggio the subject was often used as a pretext for anecdotal genre paintings. Caravaggio may well have been familiar with earlier Netherlandish paintings of money lenders or of gamblers seated around a table like Saint Matthew and his associates.
Hendrick ter Brugghen
The Depiction of the Event1. Caravaggio represented the event as a nearly silent, dramatic narrative.
2. The sequence of actions before and after this moment can be easily and convincingly re-created. 3. The tax-gatherer Levi (Saint Matthew's name before he became the apostle) was seated at a table with his four assistants, 4. counting the day's proceeds, the group lighted from a source at the upper right of the painting.
Christ, His eyes veiled, with His halo the only hint of divinity, enters with Saint Peter. With a gesture of His right hand, all the more powerful and compelling because of its languor, he summons Levi. (has he seen the Sistine chapel creation of Adam?) Surprised by the intrusion and perhaps dazzled by the sudden light from the just-opened door, Levi draws back and gestures toward himself with his left hand as if to say, "Who, me?", his right hand remaining on the coin he had been counting before Christ's entrance.
The other figures1. The two figures on the left, derived from a 1545 Hans Holbein print representing gamblers unaware of the appearance of Christ, are so concerned with counting the money that they do not even notice his entrance
2. Symbolically their inattention to Christ deprives them of the opportunity He offers for eternal life, and condemns them.
1. The two boys in the centre do respond, the younger one drawing back against Levi as if seeking his protection, 2. The swaggering older one, who is armed, leaning forward a little menacingly.
The dramatic point 1. The dramatic point of the picture is that for this moment, no one does anything. 2. Christ's appearance is so unexpected and His gesture so commanding as to suspend action for a shocked instant, before reaction can take place. 3. In another second, Levi will rise up to follow Christ in fact; Christ's feet are already turned as if to leave the room. 4. The particular power of the picture is in this cessation of action. 5. It utilizes the fundamentally static medium of painting to convey characteristic human indecision after a challenge or command and before reaction.
The composition. The picture is divided into two parts. The standing figures on the right form a vertical rectangle; those gathered around the table on the left a horizontal block.
The costumes reinforce the contrast. Levi and his subordinates, who are involved in affairs of this world, are dressed in a contemporary mode, While the barefoot Christ and Saint Peter, who summon Levi to another life and world, appear in timeless cloaks. The two groups are also separated by a void, bridged literally and symbolically by Christ's hand. This hand, like Adam's in Michelangelo's Creation, unifies the two parts formally and psychologically
Use of light The light has been no less carefully manipulated: the visible window covered with oilskin, very likely to provide diffused light in the painter's studio;
the upper light, to illuminate Saint Matthew's face and the seated group;
And the light behind Christ and Saint Peter, introduced only with them. It may be that this third source of light is intended as miraculous. Otherwise, why does Saint Peter cast no shadow on the defensive youth facing him? This is a device to demonstrate supernatural in a natural world and is Particular to Caravaggio as we have seen in the supper at Emmaus.
The Martyrdom of St Matthew Hangs on the right wall of the Contarelli Chapel and is lit from the left, as if from the window behind the altar.
The location Is the steps up to a Christian altar, with a Greek cross marked on its front, and a candle burning. In the background on the left, we can just make out the shaft of a column in the almost impenetrable darkness.
Steps ascend parallel to the picture towards the altar at the back. They also appear on the left, where churches do not normally have steps. For this reason some experts have claimed to detect a baptismal font in the foreground, especially as men are lying nearby, half-naked. On the left, a man is leaning against a step. He has no more concrete a role than two youths crouching in the foreground on the right, staring at the main action. They form the right-hand border of the composition, like river-gods on classical reliefs.
The picture's main figure is also half-naked. This is not the martyr, but his executioner. He has emerged from the depth of the picture to stand near the altar. Caravaggio is really depicting the murderer's moment. He has thrown St Matthew, a bearded old man, to the ground. As a priest, he is wearing alb and chasuble. Whilst his victim helplessly props himself up on the ground, the Herculean youth seizes his wrist in his right hand, to hold the victim still for the death-blow.
Yet the apostle's attempt to ward off his murderer, with his furious face, turns into a different gesture as an angel extends a martyr's palm-leaf to his open hand.
The Conversion on the Way to Damascus1. After the clamorous success of the Contarelli Chapel. 2. Caravaggio received a new commission. The wealthy Tiberio Cerasi had bought a family chapel in the church of St. Maria del Popolo, and he wanted the best that money could buy. 3. Like he had done in the Contarelli chapel Caravaggio was to paint the two side paintings, this time depicting respectively the crucifixion of St. Peter and the conversion of St. Paul.
The more prestigious altarpiece was given to another artist of great fame, Annibale Carracci, who had followed the path of the great masters, imitating and renewing the concepts and manners of Raphael.
Michelangelo: The conversion of St. Paul
Caravaggio In competition 1. with the colossal genius of renaissance art, Michelangelo Buonarrotti, who had died in 1564. 2. Nobody in Rome could be unaware of the Pauline frescoes that Michelangelo had carried out in his old age. 3. This was the task: to surpass the old master as well as Caracci
Michelangelo: The crucifixion of St. Peter
Caravaggio must have felt the weight of the task. And he almost failed. The contract stipulates that the paintings be carried out on wood, as indeed they were. Unfortunately Caravaggio or maybe his employee looked at what he had accomplished - and rejected the result. Of these two paintings on wood only the Conversion of St. Paul still exists, and it gives us a good hint as to what was wrong.
The picture is utterly confusing. Far too much is going on. Jesus is hovering from the upper right corner, supported by a boy-angel. The bearded soldier, with his eyes half closed is referring to the companions of Saul who heard the voice but saw nothing. He is an emblem of the disbeliever
In the bottom we see Saul in armor, pressing his hands against his eyes. In many ways the picture is like that of Michelangelo. The horse, the soldier, and the Savior descending, but where Michelangelo clarifies his picture by grouping the persons . . . Everything, in Caravaggio's attempt seems cramped together in the small space available. But he tried again and this time on canvas. However he may have seen the Carracci altarpiece, finished in the meantime.
Carracci had made a clear composition, based on the renaissance model of Raphael or Andrea del Sarto. Triangles put together to form an entity. Even though the two front figures seem exalted, the overall impression is that of harmony.
Caravaggio must have felt impelled to try to combine the compositional clarity of Carracci with the radical realism he had developed in the Contarelli chapel.
The Crucifixion of St. Peter, 1600, oil on canvas 230x175cm
The conversion of Saul, 1600, oil on canvas, 230x175cm
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
The two paintings are close ups. The drama is concentrated. The crucifixion shows a double axial composition, repeating the cross motif twice, whereas the conversion is like an upside down version of the Carracci altarpiece. Only the light shining upon the fallen Saul indicates the presence of Jesus. Whatever happens here happens in Saul's mind. The outward drama of the previous version has been abandoned leaving us with a fallen human being, lower than even the beast above, but begging for an explanation. In the St. Peter on his side we see the aged body of the apostle, and feel it's weight, just like the three men struggling to get the cross upright.
Caravaggio's depictions - have little in common with the brilliant colours and stylized attitudes of Annibale, and Caravaggio seems by far the more modern artist. Caravaggio is close to the Bible. The horse is there and, to hold him, a groom, but the drama is internalized within the mind of Saul. He lies on the ground stunned, his eyes closed as if dazzled by the brightness of God's light that streams down the white part of the skewbald horse, but that the light is heavenly is clear only to the believer, for Saul has no halo. In the spirit of Luke, the author of Acts, Caravaggio makes religious experience look like a natural event.
1.Technically the picture has defects. The horse, based on Drer, looks hemmed in, there is too much happening at the composition's base, too many feet cramped together, let alone Saul's splayed hands and discarded sword. 2.Bellori's * view that the scene is 'entirely without action' misses the point. Like a composer who values silence, Caravaggio respects stillness. *Gian Pietro Bellori (16131696),Italian painter and antiquarian but more famously, a prominent biographer of artists of the 17th century, equivalent to Giorgio Vasari
The birth of Opera1. 2. 3. 4. 5. An aspect of high Baroque the idea of opera was a fusion of all musical art forms. Instrumental, singing and drama La Dafne by Jacopo Peri is the first documented example of an opera The at reached maturity with Claudio Monteverdi 1567-1633 who wrote Orfeo in Mantua The first public opera house opened in 1637 in Venice.
Paris opera house - exuberant neo-classical style and a persistent baroque character. Charles Garnier architect
Is difficult to identify female artists Women were excluded from life classes with nude models as a result they were at a decided disadvantage Rachel Ruysch ; Amsterdam1664 - 1750 Dutch Still-life painter. Judith Leyster ; 1609 - 1660 Also Dutch painter Artemisia Gentileschi 15931652 Italian Early Baroque painter
Artemisias Judith and Holofernes The unpretentious approach the passion and intensity of Artemisias paintings are what make her unique She suffered a rape by one of her fathers friends This must have left her with a special insight into violence and betrayal. She would have had to battle against the prejudices of her culture which included the belief in the natural inferiority of women This may have fuelled the fire with which she depicts Judith and Holofernes.