automation in micro irrigation kvg

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1. welcome 2. AUTOMATION IN MICROIRRIGATION presentation on :- Subject: - Micro irrigation system design Presented by: - BARIA DIPAK ( PAGEN-091-2012 ) KAUSHAL .V. GADARIYA (PAGEN-097-2012) CHETAN CHAUHAN (PAGEN-092-2012) 3. Contents Introduction System components of automated irrigation system Preparation of programming schedule Various types of automation system Benefits of automized irrigation Limitations of automized irrigation system 4. Introduction Automation is the godsend of farming. In developed countries a large area has been covered under automated micro irrigation system. It is relatively new; but getting popularity day- by-day. 5. What is automation? Automation is a kind of innovation, in which the manual interventions are replaced by an automated system to perform all the operations. 6. What is automation in micro irrigation? It is a system by which all the operations related to the supply of irrigation water or fertilizer to the crop are carried out, automatically with no or minimum manual interventions. 7. Scope of automation in micro irrigation The scope of automation has become a new development in micro irrigation sector. In India, the pressurized irrigation has created a great awareness among the farmers. From government side several initiatives have been taken for popularization. 8. System components of automated irrigation system 9. An automized micro-irrigation consists of following three components 1.Sensors 2.Controllers 3.Monitoring software / decision support system 10. Sensors These are the device used in the system for producing electrical signals related to the parameter to be measured. Provide the basic data to drive the automatic control system Installation of sensor 11. Types of sensors 1. Continuous sensors Produce the electrical signals in continuous form such as voltage, current, conductivity, capacitance etc Used for measuring the pressure drop across the filter or for determining the soil moisture tension. 12. 2.Discrete sensors These are the mechanical or electronic switches They indicate on/off condition and also to indicate the opening/closing state of valves, alarms, etc 13. Different types of sensors Analog tensiometer. Contact tensiometer. Electrical resistance sensors. Dielectric sensors. Thermal soil matric potential sensor. Gypsum block soil moisture sensor. 14. Controllers It is considered as the heart of automation system. Its function is to coordinate the operation of entire system. They consists of an electronic calendar and the clock. There is option for irrigation schedule of weekdays. 15. Types of controllers 1. Electromagnetic controllers :--- 2. Electronic controllers 16. Control valves 1. Hydraulic valves. These control valves are operated by hydraulic pressure. Control tubes and solenoid coils are used to transmit the commands to valves. Two types of configuration normally closed (NC) and normally open (NO). 17. 2.Automatic metering valves Used in volume based automated irrigation system. 18. Preparation of programming schedule Programmed the irrigation system to determine the duration of irrigation for the given crop, and for each section. Feed the duration of individual valves in the controller along with system start time. Set the controller clock in respect of current day and time. 19. Working procedure As the clock of controller gets matched with the start time of programme. The controller starts sending 24V AC current to the first solenoid valve in the programme sequencer. At the same time the current reaches the master relay to start the pump. 20. Various types of automation system 21. Time based system Volume based system Open Loop Systems Closed Loop Systems Real Time Feedback System Computer-based Irrigation Control Systems Sensor Controlled Micro Irrigation Types of automation system 22. Operation time is considered as the basis of irrigation. Operation time is computed on the basis of required volume of water and the average rate of water flow. Time based system Feed the time in the controller clock Controller Valve 1 open Valve 1 close valve 2 open signals 23. Volume based system Provided with volume controlled metering valve by which a preset amount of water is applied to the field. It consists of 2 systems 24. System 2 Interconnected automatic metering valves at each field segment. For closing and opening of metering valves. System 1 Automatic metering valve with pulse output Controller Valve 1 Valve 2 25. Open loop system In this system information about irrigation duration or required volume of water is feed to the control unit. These information were programmed in he system controller. Advantage - low cost. Disadvantage system does not respond to the environmental conditions. 26. Closed loop system In this system one or more sensors are equipped. Operator based on operators control strategy. System takes the decision on he basis of sensors data. 27. Real time feed back system The system works on the basis of real feed back data regarding demand of the crop at a given time. Various sensors like tensiometer, relative humidity sensors, rain sensors, temperature sensors etc, used to feed the crop data to control unit. 28. Computer based irrigation control system In this system, a hardware and software is equipped to supervise the irrigation and other associated works like fertigation, maintenance. This control system used in MIS is divided into following two categories: 1)Interactive system 2)Fully automatic system 29. 1. Interactive system : - This system use a micro computer. The data is transmitted to control unit from sensors and then to central computer. In system, the field devices like valves, regulators, pumps etc., are fitted with electrically operated servo-device, which operates them. Operator has provision to control the flow from the central computer by changing the parameters like pressure etc. 30. 2. Automatic system : - In this system person is completely avoided. Computer is programmed to perform automatic functions. With the help of control devices corrections can be done. In this system there is a facility to stop the function when there is a rainfall etc. 31. Benefits of automized irrigation Conservation of water, labour and energy. Flexibility in operation. Precision and ease in operation. Adoption possibilities of advanced cropping and new technologies. Feasibility of water use from different sources. Control on entire irrigation system. Enhancement in crop yield with better quality. Better water and nutrient use efficiency. 32. Limitations of automized irrigation system High system cost. Sensor sensitivity. Improper functioning of control valves. Frequent maintenance. 33. Reference Abraham, N.,Hema, P.S.,Saritha, E.K. & Subramannaiah, S. (2000). Irrigation automation based on soil electrical conductivity & leaf temperature. Agricultural water management 45:145-157 R. Suresh, Micro irrigation theory and practice 34. THANK YOU