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    Ascending evacuation in long stairways: Physical exertion, walking speed and behaviour

    Ronchi, Enrico; Norén, Johan; Delin, Mattias; Kuklane, Kalev; Halder, Amitava; Arias, Silvia; Fridolf, Karl


    Link to publication

    Citation for published version (APA): Ronchi, E., Norén, J., Delin, M., Kuklane, K., Halder, A., Arias, S., & Fridolf, K. (2015). Ascending evacuation in long stairways: Physical exertion, walking speed and behaviour. (TVBB-3192; Vol. 3192). Department of Fire Safety Engineering and Systems Safety, Lund University.

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  • Ascending evacuation in

    long stairways: Physical

    exertion, walking speed

    and behaviour

    Enrico Ronchi

    Johan Norén

    Mattias Delin

    Kalev Kuklane

    Amitava Halder

    Silvia Arias

    Karl Fridolf

    Department of Fire Safety Engineering

    Department of Design Sciences

    Lund University, Sweden

    Lund 2015

    Report 3192

  • Ascending evacuation in long stairways: Physical exertion,

    walking speed and behaviour

    Enrico Ronchi

    Johan Norén

    Mattias Delin

    Kalev Kuklane

    Amitava Halder

    Silvia Arias

    Karl Fridolf

    Lund 2015

  • Ascending evacuation in long stairways: Physical exertion, walking speed and behaviour Enrico Ronchi, Johan Norén, Mattias Delin, Kalev Kuklane, Amitava Halder, Silvia Arias, Karl Fridolf Report 3192 Number of pages: 116 Keywords: ascending evacuation, fatigue, stairs, escalators, physical exertion, walking speed, human behaviour. Abstract. This is the final report of the project “Ascending evacuation in long stairways: Physical exertion, walking speed and behaviour”. This project investigated the effects of fatigue on walking speeds, physiological performance and behaviours in case of long ascending evacuation. The report includes a literature review on, at the time when the project began, existing material on ascending evacuation on long stairs and escalators. Experimental research was conducted and the results are presented in the report. This includes two set of experiments on human performance during ascending evacuation in long stairs. In addition, an individual and group experiment was performed to investigate the performance of people during an ascending evacuation on a long stopped escalator. One laboratory experiment was conducted on a stair machine and a methodology to link the laboratory and the field experiments has been presented. Results include walking speeds, physiological measures of physical exertion (oxygen consumption, heart rates and electromyography data), perceived exertion and behavioural observations. Results show that physical work capacity affect walking speeds in case of long ascending evacuation and it should be considered while using long ascending evacuation in engineering design. The analysis of both walking and vertical speeds is recommended since it provides additional insights on the impact of stair configuration on vertical displacement. The novel datasets presented in this report are deemed to provide useful information for fire safety engineers both for assisting fire safety design as well as the calibration of evacuation modelling tools. A new prediction model for the representation of physical exertion in relation to physiological data, i.e., maximal oxygen consumption, has been developed and presented. This model allows predicting the time that a person can walk upwards at a certain pace in relation to physical exertion and human physical work capacity. © Copyright: Department of Fire Safety Engineering, Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund 2015 & Briab Brand och Riskingenjörerna AB & DeBrand Sverige AB.

    Department of Fire Safety Engineering Lund University

    P.O. Box 118 SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden

    Telephone: +46 46 222 73 60 Fax: +46 46 222 46 12

    Avdelningen för brandteknik Lunds universitet

    P.O. Box 118 221 00 Lund

    Telefon: 046 - 222 73 60 Telefax: 046 - 222 46 12

  • Acknowledgements The authors of this report are grateful to the sponsors of the project. This project would not have been possible without the funding received from two Swedish sponsors, namely the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) and the Swedish Fire Research Board (Brandforsk), who jointly financed about 90% of the project. In addition, co-funding for approximately 10% has been provided by the two engineering firms involved in the project, namely Briab – Brand & Riskingenjörerna AB and DeBrand Sverige AB. The project had a total budget of approximately 2.1 million SEK (which corresponds to approximately € 240 000) and it was carried out during approximately two years (from October 2013 to September 2015). The authors would like to thank Karin Lundgren and Sofia Månsson for all their help with data collection during the field studies, and Chuansi Gao and Michael Miller for their support on analysis and discussion of electromyographic (EMG) data. The authors also thank Caroline Ericsson Lantz for her help in the data collection in the Ideon Gateway experiment and Ruggiero Lovreglio for proof reading the report. A special thank goes to the reference group of the project who has provided useful suggestions

    throughout the entire duration of the project. The reference group included Caroline Cronsioe

    (Boverket), Jenny Ahlfont (Storstockholms brandförsvar), Per Vedin and Behnam Shahriari

    (Trafikverket), Per-Erik Johansson (Brandforsk), Tomas Ojala and Ditte Kahlström Jansson

    (SLL), Ingerid Eknes (Oslo T-banedrift), Axel Jönsson (Brandskyddslaget), Arne Brodin and Johan

    Häggström (Faveo).

    We also thank Vasakronan for the use of Kista Science Tower, SLL (in the person of Tomas Ojala) and MTR for the use of the escalator at Västra Skogen metro station. Especially we would like to thank their staff that put a lot of effort in helping us during the experiments.

  • Preface This is the final report of the Swedish research project Utrymning i långa trappor uppåt: Utmattning, gånghastighet och beteende [English translation: Ascending evacuation in long stairways: Physical exhaustion (this word has been replaced with “exertion” due to the terminology adopted in this report), walking speed and behaviour]. This project investigated and quantified human performance in case of long ascending evacuation. The egress components under consideration in the projects were stairs and one set of experiments was carried out on a stopped escalator. The overall goal of the project was to increase the current understanding on human performance during ascending evacuation and produce novel data and modelling information for relevant stakeholders (e.g., authorities, fire safety engineers, etc.). In addition, the project investigated the use of a stair machine to collect data on human performance in ascending evacuation on stairs and escalators. Collected data included walking and vertical speeds on stairs and escalators as well as physiological measurements of human exertion. The approach of the research project was highly multidisciplinary, since researchers and practitioners from different disciplines (fire safety engineering and physiology) have been cooperating towards the common goal to increase the knowledge about ascending evacuation in stairs and escalators. This research area has received little attention at the time the project was initiated. The partners of the research projects included researchers from Lund University and two Swedish companies, namely Briab – Brand & Riskingenjörerna AB, and DeBrand Sverige AB. The project included five different parts:

    1) A literature review on the existing material on the topic of ascending evacuation on stairs and escalators.

    2) Two sets of experiments aimed at investigating individual and group performance of people during ascending long stair evacuation. Behaviours were also studied. Two buildings of different heights (approximately 48 m and 109 m) were considered. Individual experiments involved 47 and 29 test participants, respectively, while group experiments involved 15 and 26 test participan