art appreciation topic iv: renaissance art

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  • 1.Art AppreciationTopic IV:Renaissance Art1420-1610

2. The term renaissance means rebirth, and stems fromideas formulated by the Italian poet Petrarch. Petrarch believed that heand his contemporaries had revived Greek and Roman ideas andthought after a period of cultural stagnation in the Dark Ages followingthe collapse of the Roman Empire. The Italian city of Florence is oftendescribed as the cradle of the Renaissance. The new middle classes achieved a status for themselves, andinstead of bowing to the inevitability of death and focusing on theafterlife, they took pride in their contribution to society in this world, acultural shift called humanism. For the first time since classicalantiquity, a new naturalism appeared in art. Religious subjects remained the most common theme, butpainting and sculpture became realistic, representing the living, visibleworld rather than, as in medieval art, symbolically portraying theheavenly realm. Painting had a convincing illusion of three dimensions,with solid-looking figures set in a unified space. The figures have nobleproportions and features, and show believable emotions. 3. The Annunciation by Fra Angelico 4. David byDonatello 5. St. John inthe Desert byDomenico 6. The Baptismof Christ by Piero della Francesca 7. The Hunt in the Forest by Uccello 8. Christ at theColumn by Antonello 9. Primavera by Botticelli 10. The Birth of Venus by Botticelli 11. The Lamentation over theDead Christ by Mantegna 12. A Satyr Mourning over aNymph by Piero di Cosimo 13. The Last Supper by Leonardo 1970s 14. After restoration 15. Mona Lisa(La Gionconda)by Leonardo 16. DavidbyMichelangelo 17. The Creation of Adamby Michelangelo 18. Laura(Portrait of a YoungWoman)byGiorgione 19. The Sleeping Venus by Giorgione 20. The SistineMadonna byRaphael 21. Feast of the Gods by Bellini 22. Young Woman with Mirror by Bellini 23. Madonna of theHarpies bydel Sarto 24. Apollo and Daphne byDossi 25. Bacchusby Dossi 26. TheAbduction of Ganymedeby Correggio 27. Venus of Urbino by Titian 28. After the High Renaissance in Italy there followed a period inwhich painting, sculpture and architecture broke with many of theclassical conventions. The term Mannerism was later adopted todescribe both the period and its stylistic characteristics. Mannerism began to develop in Italy around the time ofRaphaels death in 1520. Some scholars see Mannerism as a reactionagainst the classical harmony of Raphael and his High Renaissancecontemporaries such as Leonardo and Michelangelo, and others see itas an evolution from elements in their work. It has been defined aseither an effected, decadent distortion, or an emotional refinement, oflate Renaissance ideals. It was a courtly style, but beneath the elegance and technicalbrilliance there is often an element of emotional disturbance. Tensionand drama were achieved by the use of elongated figures inexaggerated poses, bold colors and lighting, and a dramatic distortionof scale and perspective. 29. Madonnawith the LongNeckbyParmigianino 30. An AllegorywithVenus andCupidbyBronzino 31. Perseuswith theHead ofMedusa by Cellini 32. Venus and Mars by Tintoretto 33. The Last Supper by Tintoretto 34. ApenninebyGiambologna 35. In the 14th and 15th centuries, artists in northern Europeas inItalybegan to depict the world in a more realistic way. In the 15thcentury, the Northern Renaissance centered on Flanders (modern-day Belgium and northern France) and Germany. Many scholars creditthe French king Charles V (reigned 1364-80) and the Holy RomanEmperor Charles IV (reigned 1355-78) for the start of the NorthernRenaissance. While Italian artists attained a greater naturalism through thestudy of anatomy, perspective, and classical art, northern artistsachieved it by developing and mastering oil paint and paying preciseattention to detail. The figures in Flemish painting are oftenextraordinarily lifelikethey are not the flat figures of medieval art, norare they idealized as in Italian Renaissance painting. Many of the best artworks of the 15th century were altarpieces.There were also highly detailed prints, both woodcuts and copperplateengravings. In the 16th century, Northern Renaissance paintersinstigated the genre of landscapes and anticipated genre of the still-life. 36. TheArnolfiniPortrait byvan Eyck 37. Descent from the Cross byVan der Weyden 38. Virginand Childby Fouquet 39. The Garden of Earthly Delightsby Bosch 40. Self-Portrait by Drer 41. Henry, Duke of Saxony byCranach theElder 42. NeptuneandAmphytrite byGossaert (Mabuse) 43. Portraitof Henry VIII ofEngland by Holbein 44. QueenMary I by Mor 45. Fall of theRebel AngelsbyFloris 46. Landscape with the Fall of Icarus by Brueghel the Elder 47. Tower of Babel by Brueghel 48. Expatriate Italians and artists trained in Italy helped spreadMannerism to other countries in Europe throughout the 16th century.Italian artists were employed at several foreign courts and Manneristinfluence was also spread widely by engravings.The courts at Fontainebleau in France and Prague in Bohemiawere the most impressive settings for Mannerist art outside Italy. InFrance, Mannerist artists created a distinctively elegant stylefeaturinglong-limbed, small-headed figuresthat formed an influential currentin French art until the end of the 16th century.In essence, it is a sophisticated, sometimes rather inbred style,so it is not surprising that its most refined manifestations wereproduced for courtly settings. The most powerful and personalinterpretation of Mannerism outside Italy, however, is that of ElGreco, who spent most of his career in Spain. Although his work isintensely individual, his elongated figures have a stylistic kinship withthose of other artists of the time. 49. PierreQuthebyClouet 50. EmperorRudolf II asVertumnusbyArcimboldo 51. View of Toledo byEl Greco