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Application LeadershipPlating Industry

March 2002

Situation AnalysisPlating facilities

Geographically close to their customer base Shipping time / cost and customer service are the drivers

Located in all industrial zones worldwide

Generally small operations (i.e. small buildings and plating lines)Size of Operations

Small - 85% of plating companies, less than 10,000 sq. ft.

Mid-size - 10% of plating companies, 50,000 - 100,000 sq. ft.

Large - 5% of plating companies, 100,000+ sq. ft.

One to two working shifts per dayCompanies specialize around plating type and/or volumeD

Diaphragm pumps in Plating industryMost common type of pumpHusky line meets plating industry requirements.

Application BasicsDifferent types of plating

Chromate conversionElectroless Nickel

Zinc PlatingPassivationAnodizing

Plating OutcomesModify the metal surface via chemical processes

Improve / increase the corrosive or abrasion resistanceRemove rust-causing particles from metal surface

Chromate ConversionMetals used with Chromate Conversion

Aluminum only

Properties / ProcessesProvides minimal corrosion resistance.Essentially a primer coat which may or may not have a finish coating appliedProcess does not require electric current to be applied to the parts rack for coatingattractionProcess does not have dielectric strengthConduct electricity

Maximum thickness of the coating .00001

Chromate Conversion ranges in color from clear to dark yellowClear - ???

Lighter yellow - less corrosion resistanceDarker yellow - best corrosion resistance

Chromate Conversion - known by other namesIrridite, Chem-film, or Alodyne

Electroless Nickel

Metals used with Electroless NickelCopper, Steel, Brass, Aluminum

Properties / ProcessesResists corrosion, but is not idealRequires electric current to be applied to the parts rack for coating attraction

Material thickness range of .0001 and up. Beyond .002 or .003 pitting can occur

True Plating Material applied to the surface

Material does not penetrate the surface

Zinc PlatingMetals used with Zinc Plating

Steel only

Properties / ProcessesResists corrosion but stainless steel is betterRequires electric current to be applied to the parts rack for coating attraction

Material Thickness range needs to be verified

True Plating Material applied to the surface

Material does not penetrate the surface

PassivationMetals used with Passivation

Stainless steel only

Properties / ProcessesPassivation: a cleaning process

Removes iron particles from stainless steel surface

Iron particles cause rust

Requires electric current to be applied to the parts rack for coating attractionMaterial Thickness

range needs to be verified

AnodizingMetals used with Anodizing

Aluminum only

Properties / ProcessesGrows" an aluminum chromate surface to replace the original aluminum surfaceImproves the corrosion and abrasion resistance

Requires electric current to be applied to the parts rack for coating to growMaterial Thickness

Varies by electric current and time spent in xxx (need name of tank/process) tank

Types of anodizing Type One: Chromic Acid anodizing

Type Two: Sulfuric Acid anodizing

Type Three: Hard Coat anodizing

Types of AnodizingType One Anodizing - Chromic Acid Anodizing

Older processRarely used

Negative environmental impact of chromic acids

Type Two Anodizing: - Sulfuric Acid AnodizingProvides basic wear/corrosion resistanceColor

Clear or colored (dye added)

Hardness Equivalent to 30 on Rockwell scale

Tank Temperature Between 68-72 degrees Parts burn at higher temperatures

Electric current is applied to the parts rackType Two has dielectric strength

Does not conduct electricity

Aluminum oxide surface is between .0004 -.0013

Types of Anodizing - continuedType Three Anodizing - Hard Coat Anodizing

Uses Sulfuric acid, like Type Two, but at a different temperature and length of timeBetter wear/corrosion resistance than a Type One

Color Clear or colored (dye added)

Hardness Equivalent to 60 - 65 on Rockwell scale

Tank Temperature Between 28 - 32 degrees

Parts burn at higher temperatures

Electric current is applied to the parts rack

Type Three has dielectric strength Does not conduct electricity

Aluminum oxide surface is between .0016 - .0024

Steps in PlatingAlthough each plating method may havecertain steps that are unique to theirproducing a final product, they allessentially include the following the fourstages

CleaningConversionSealing

DryingThe typical plant may vary in layout, butwill contain the many of the stagesindicated

Parts are loaded on racking

system

Cle

an

ing

A

rea

Rinse

Clean

Rinse

Clean

Dry off area

Chemcial / Acid Bath

Rinse

Rinse

Dye Tank

Rinse

Co

nvers

ion

of

pla

ting

are

a

Chemcial / Acid Bath

Seal Coat Tank

Rinse

Convert

ing a

nd

pla

ting a

rea

Opti

onal D

ye

Are

a

Seale

r Coat

Are

a

Rinse Chemcial / Acid Bath

Steps in PlatingCleaning

Remove oils, dirt and other contaminants Multi-stage process

Dependent upon prior processing of metal parts

Cleaning tanks are the first tanks in the production sequenceProduction can be automated

High percentage of manual operations in nearly all processes

ConvertingParts dipped into acid tanks after cleaning

Anodizing 15% sulfuric acid / 85% water solution opens the surface Converts aluminum to aluminum oxide

Color Produces clear coating

Colored coating achieved by dipping parts into a dye/color tank

Process Duration Time in tank and temperature of fluid varies by application

Steps in Plating

SealingParts dipped into seal coat tanks after converting

Closes the surface

Materials Used Nickel fluoride

Nickel acetate

Dry OffForced air containment area for drying

Pumps used in Plating FacilitiesDiaphragm pump applications

Supplying non-diluted acids from bulk tanks to the plating tanks Polypropylene pumps for phosphoric acid @ a 80% solution

Kynar pumps for sulfuric acid @ a 93% solution

Supplying caustics to the water treatment area Polypropylene pumps for Sodium Hydroxide @ a 50% solution

Decanting the plating tanks Polypropylene pumps for basic maintenance of the plating tanks require removal of up

to 30% of a tank, and replacing it with fresh material

Pumps located near the tanks

Supplying lower volume chemicals to process tanks Cleaning, converting, or color tanks

Polypropylene pumps for soaps, dioxides, and nitric acids One pump may be used to all of these materials

Configured with elastomers for the most aggressive material.

Pumps used in Plating FacilitiesSupplying polymers for the water treatment areas

Polypropylene or Kynar pumps typically utilized

Polymer feed in the water treatment area Single diaphragm metering pumps Remote diaphragm pumps for applications not requiring the accuracy of single

diaphragm pumps

Pumping sludge to the filter press in the water treatment area

Electric and air-operated acid pumps used in specific applicationsEmptying plating tanks

Process Application Leadership

Situation AnalysisApplication Basics

Graco Solution Return on Investment

Application Benefits

Competitive Performance

Process Application Leadership

Situation AnalysisApplication Basics

Graco Solution Return on Investment

Application Benefits

Competitive Performance

A complete line of Air-Operated Double Diaphragm Pumps for your aggressive fluids

PRO

CESS

EQ

UIPM

ENT

P R O V E N Q U A L I T Y . L E A D I N G T E C H N O L O G Y .

CORROSION RESISTANT

300632A BRO Corrosion Resistant 1/7/03 12:27 PM Page 1

Key Materials Key Applications

Hydrofluoric acid

Phosphoric acid

Nitric acid

Nickel sulfate

Hydroxides

Chlorides

Surfactants

Caustic soda

Lye

Methylene

HU

SK

Y C

OR

RO

SIO

N R

ES

ISTA

NT

Diaphragms offer flow rates from 25-50% greater thanmany competitive pumps with diaphragms.

Available in Kynar (PVDF), Poly and SST construction.

All models come standard with our patented dual cup air valve one of the most reliable air valves in the market.

Available in standard or remote capabilities.

Longest warranty in the industry.

Graco offers all of the sizes and materials of construction thatyou require for your applications, plus, more features than youever expected, including standard and remote capabilities,stainless steel center sections, and one of the most reliable air valves in the industry. Thats what makes our SST, Poly and Kynar pumps perfect for all of your applications. Youwont find a more reliable line of Corrosion-Resistant pumpsanywhere else!

Product Benefits:

Chemical feed for waste treatment

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