android document for paper presentation

1 INTRODUCTION Android is a mobile operating system that uses a modified version of the Linux kernel2.6 Google released most of the Android code under Apache License, a free software & open source license. All the flimflams and excitement about the costlier iphones and Blackberrys are vanishing, after the arrival of the most anticipated, open source mobile operating system, the Google Android, which is fated to turn the industry upside down. Despite the growth and popularity for iPhones and Blackberrys, it is predicted that, Android will make a history in sales and on acquiring the market share, slicing down the markets of both Symbians and iPhones. This paper will elaborately examine the predictions about the future of Android phones, considering the present facts and reasons. 1

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1 INTRODUCTIONAndroid is a mobile operating system that uses a modified version of the Linux kernel2.6 Google released most of the Android code under Apache License, a free software & open source license. All the flimflams and excitement about the costlier iphones and Blackberrys are vanishing, after the arrival of the most anticipated, open source mobile operating system, the Google Android, which is fated to turn the industry upside down. Despite the growth and popularity for iPhones and Bla


Page 1: Android Document for Paper presentation


Android is a mobile operating system that uses a modified version of the Linux

kernel2.6 Google released most of the Android code under Apache License, a free

software & open source license.

All the flimflams and excitement about the costlier iphones and Blackberrys are

vanishing, after the arrival of the most anticipated, open source mobile operating

system, the Google Android, which is fated to turn the industry upside down. Despite

the growth and popularity for iPhones and Blackberrys, it is predicted that, Android

will make a history in sales and on acquiring the market share, slicing down the

markets of both Symbians and iPhones. This paper will elaborately examine the

predictions about the future of Android phones, considering the present facts and



Page 2: Android Document for Paper presentation

1.1 History Of ANDROID :

Open Handset Alliance (OHA) a confederation of 50 Telecoms, mobile

hardware, and software companies, headed by Google, was found on 5th of

November, 2007. The consortium's goal is deploy, the advanced open standards for

mobile devices. Android is an open source mobile OS platform, purely based on the

Linux operating system, Apache harmony, and Dalvik Virtual machine and was first

developed by Google, later backed by the Open Handset Alliance. A simple and

attractive thing about Android, is its Java-like language based on Google-developed

Java libraries. Recently, for the first time, Google released the Native Development

Kit (NDK) for Android which enables programmers to develop programs and native

application that could run on the device.

1.2 Why 'Google' Android:

The advent of internet can be marked, when it was developed, nearly 3 decades

ago, as a project of the US Department of Defense. But now, Internet technology has

changed the way of every businesses, after the arrival of Google. When a person boots

up his web browser, it's a sure thing, that his home page would be '' page,

because, everyone who uses Internet, relies on Google for its accurate web results.


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So, what's all about this Google and the Android thing? Simple, It is a revenue Geyser

for Google and the sweetest thing is that, its not just for Google, since the Android apps

developers are going to be the real beneficiaries. You could have heard about the Mobile

phone advertisements mentioning the features like Yahoo one search and names of other

big WAP and Mobile Web search Giants. Google's entry in to the Mobile OS sector is a

simple strategy to acquire a good piece of the soon-to-boom, Mobile-web Advertising

market. The biggest advantage of Android OS over other Mobile OS is its Open source

status, and open standards which has created some new business models for thousands of

application developers and software development companies. The success of Android

mobiles will be like a chain reaction, since people would prefer cost effective devices

with smartphone like features rather than costly mobiles with a load of unnecessary



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Android Architecture is based on Linux 2.6 kernel. It helps to

manage security, memory management, process management,

network stack and other important issues. Therefore, the user should

bring Linux in his mobile device as the main operating system and

install all the drivers required in order to run it. Android provides the

support for the Qualcomm MSM7K chipset family. For instance, the

current kernel tree supports Qualcomm MSM 7200A chipsets, but in

the second half of 2008 we should see mobile devices with stable

version Qualcomm MSM 7200, which includes major features:

WCDMA/HSUPA and EGPRS network support

Bluetooth 1.2 and Wi-Fi support


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Digital audio support for mp3 and other formats

Support for Linux and other third-party operating


Fig: Kernel Level

Java hardware acceleration and support for Java


Qcamera up to 6.0 megapixels

In the next level we can see a set of native libraries written in

C/C++, which are responsible for stable performance of various

components. For example, Surface Manager is responsible for

composing different drawing surfaces on the mobile screen. It

manages the access for different processes to compose 2D and 3D

graphic layers. OpenGL ES and SGL make a core of graphic libraries

and are used accordingly for 3D and 2D hardware acceleration.



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Fig: Libraries

it is possible to use 2D and 3D graphics in the same application

in Android. The media framework was provided by PacketVideo, one of

the members of OHA. It gives libraries for a playback and recording

support for all the major media and static image files. FreeType

libraries are used to render all the bitmap and vector fonts. For data

storage, Android uses SQLite. As I mentioned before, it is extra light

rational management system, which locates a single file for all

operations related to database. WebKit, the same browser used by

Apples’ Safari, was modified by Android in order to fit better in a small

size screens.

At the same level there is Android Runtime, where the main

component Dalvik Virtual Machine is located. It was designed

specifically for Android running in limited environment, where the

limited battery, CPU, memory and data storage are the main issues.

Android gives an integrated tool “dx”, which converts generated byte

code from .jar to .dex file, after this byte code becomes much more

efficient to run on the small processors. As the result, it is possible to

have multiple instances of Dalvik virtual machine running on the single

device at the same time. The Core libraries are written in Java

language and contains of the collection classes, the utilities, IO and

other tools.


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After that, we have Application Framework, written in Java

language. It is a toolkit that all applications use, ones which come with

mobile device like Contacts or SMS box, or applications written by

Google and any Android developer. It has several components which I

will discuss. The Activity Manager manages the life circle of the

applications and provides a common navigation backstack for

applications, which are running in different processes. The Package

Manager keeps track of the applications, which are installed in the

device. The Windows Manager is Java programming language

abstraction on the top of lower level services that are provided by the

Surface Manager. The Telephony Manager contains of a set of API

necessary for calling applications. Content Providers was built for

Android to share a data with other applications,

Fig: Application Framework

for instance, the contacts of people in the address book can be used in

other applications too. The Resource Manager is used to store localized

strings, bitmaps, layout file descriptions and other external parts of the

application. The View System generates a set of buttons and lists used

in UI. Other components like Notification manager is used to customize

display alerts and other functions.

At the top of Android Architecture we have all the applications,

which are used by the final user. By installing different applications,


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the user can turn his mobile phone into the unique, optimized and

smart mobile phone.

Android: Breaking the "Walled Garden":

Like Apple'a Appstore, Google opened its Android market, allowing the apps

developers to publish their apps without any restrictions. Unlike Apple's Appstore,

Google Android market will not have any restrictions for third party development and

will not run an apps approval systems.

And Android will be breaking another 'Walled garden', that's the mobile carrier

support. In US, AT&T had acquired the rights to sell Apple's iPhones for the next five

years from the date of its release. And in case of the Blackberrys, it is not a fully

carrier-independent handset, since the major part of the sale happens through its

different carriers, worldwide. This approach had left people frustrated, on sticking to

a monopolistic mobile carrier, irrespective of their wish to select a different carrier.

Since, Android is a open source operating system, it could leverage the advantages of

device-independency and service provider-independency.

What's so different in Android?

The good news is for both the consumers and developers. While consumers could

enjoy a low-cost Smart phones running Android, developers were given an unrestricted

customization rights. From a developer's point of view, Android has several advantages,

as listed below:

• The entire Application framework can be reused and replaced by selective



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• Dalvik virtual machine enhances the power management systems (Learn about

Dalvik VM in the following subtitle)

• Support for 2D and 3D graphics (OpenGL ES 1.0), So lot of business for

animation developers.

• Reliable and enhanced data storage ( using SQLite framework)

• Developers can create media common applications since it supports common

media file formats(MPEG, MPEG3, MPEG4, H.286, AAC, AMR, JPG, PNG,

GIF and more)

• GSM, EDGE, 3G, HSCSD, Wi-Fi network applications support (Depends on


• Open source Web-Kit Engine-based web-browser

• GPS, Navigational compass, Touch-Unlock, and accelerometer applications

support (Depends on hardware)

• Androids development environment includes a device emulator,

debugger, performance profiling tool, and an Eclipse IDE plug-in


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Fig: Some additional features of Android from other Mobiles

3 Advantages of Dalvik Virtual Machine

The Dalvik virtual machine is simple Java interpreter machine, completely

optimized for Android platform and which is developed to run on low-end memory

mobile devices. One of the prominent aspects in Dalvik its capability to run along an

application compilation enhancing the runtime performance of the applications. Dalvik

is not exactly, a Java machine, because Dalvik could not read Java code, but consists

its own byte code called “dex” and so the executable files compacted using Dalvik

holds the file type name '.dex'. Google states that the credit for Androids successful


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development goes to Dalvik VM, because this type of virtual machine, delivers a good

performance over various stages of an application runtime environment, conserving

more battery-power during long run of an application.

Fig: Executing Java Code using DVM in Android mobile

A small drawback with Dalvik, is its none-compatibility with Java SE libraries,

Java ME class libraries and Swing Java libraries, while they cannot be and need not to-

be run directly on this virtual machine. It uses its own Apache Harmony Java

implementation libraries. Despite of the earlier reason, its escalated Android's value

proposition due to its minimal-electrical power consumption, vast library resources,


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and non-fragmentary application programming interface, unlike its Java rivals.

Java related brands and trademarks are owned by Sun Micro Systems Inc., which

is soon to be acquired by Oracle Corporation. Another significant fact that assures the

open source status of Android, is that Sun Corp, cannot claim on the usage of Java-like

programming language, since Android uses a Java Virtual execution environment

developed by Google. So, there is are lot more opportunities than predicted.

3.2 Android: A promising haven for app developers and OEMs?

Application development companies, equipment manufacturers, and individual

app developers consider, Android platform as the most promising platform due do the

cost efficiency in production values. Google has given the opportunity to develop equal

native applications, with which a user can replace the Google bundle with his own non-

Google bundle applications. Undoubtedly, Android platform is the true open source

platform, but it too has got some limitations. Google tries to hold the platform

development by the third party developers. by restricting them to develop android

applications using, none other than Dalvik Virtual Machine, while ironically, the major

part of the Android is

written in C and C++.

When Android was introduced, the openness of the platform was hyped as the

main strength. Google officials, stated that the Android developers are allowed to

furnish whatever they saw fit to run. This made the entire mobile industry and software

development companies to dream about the fruit of the eternal development cycle and

the revenue generated through it.

Now, number of Androids have began to appear. But the first Android phone G1,

released by US- based T-Mobile, which was a completely packed Google phone. While


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recently, HTC, who is the manufacturer of the G1 handset, is offering the its own

Android-based HTC Magic, ripping off the Google-based bundles and includes other

features which is not seen in the other basic Android handsets. This clearly reveals that

manufacturers, software developers and phone carriers want to stand different from the

global competition on Android platform and customization business. So its obvious,

that Android is going to grow like Linux does, offering developers, a chance to develop

applications for different versions of Android by different OEMs.

Fig: Interface with PC

Positively, Android will began sporting multiple interfaces, which will be

modified by different software vendors. Some years back, the same scenario was

witnessed in the Windows Mobile world, and that was to scale the awareness, a

consumer has of the Windows Mobile. By 2012, Android will be completely

customized (in fact, that’s already happening), and it will be definitely lucrative for


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app developers, while the competition will heat up, on which handset or whose

carrier’s phone, its going to be.

4 Market Predictions:

Very few but strong predictions about Android are spreading, worldwide. Firstly,

Android is going to be bigger in terms of consumer reach than its rival, the iPhone OS.

Its just because of a true fact that it will be developed and marketed by all the 50

members of OHA, which includes companies like Google, Samsung, HTC, Sony

Ericsson, T-Mobile, Motorola, Vodafone, Sprint, China mobile and other world leaders

in telecommunication industry.

Fig: Prediction of Market Share for 2012

Secondly, Google's support will make everything possible in this Internet era, but up to

now, they hadn't started making money from their Android-based activities.


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On the other hand, by 2012, apart from Symbian and Android, iPhone will

target its businesses development towards its rival, the Blackberry in their segment.

But predictions say that, Android is completely made for mass market, and its lack

of business features (Unlike, Winslow Mobile and Blackberry, while both them has

business exchange compatibility and PC-Synchronization features) will create new

chances for its rivals.

According to Gartner, Android’s smartphone market share will grow to 14

percent from less than 2 percent by 2012, and the Symbian’s slide will continue, giving

way to Android. That kind of historical performance by Android would mirror the

Apple iPhone's rule. The first- generation iPhone was launched in 2007, in the U.S. and

immediately, it took the world by storm. On its release, the iPhones grabbed a good

11% of the smartphone market share in the first quarter of 2009 and continued to

expand day by day. But the predictions about Android’s gathering momentum, will

overtake Apple in just 2 years.

Almost all handset vendors are trying to board the Android's bandwagon, while

the oogle has effectively grown a massive android developer's community, and also,

Android is backed by the America’s largest mobile network carrier, the T-Mobile.

However, the Apple's iPhone remains the overwhelming choice for global users,

skyrocketing the sales, and are offered by numerous operators around the world. While

Apple has successfully grabbing the market inch by inch, by offering a user-friendly,

3G and High speed Internet-capable handset, Android is still fighting in that part, not

only benefiting the Apples, but also benefits the RIM's Blackberry, Windows, Palm OS

and others. Presently, Android may appear to be an invincible giant, but it will take its

own time grab the market in these early times of the super phone-era.


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Fig:Forecast of Market Share

Recently, Google has fore-casted that nearly 20 Android phones, would be

released by the members of OHA, before the end of this 2009. It is an amazing

progress for a very young open source platform, which is like an 18 month baby

fighting with giants. Googles says that the credits goes to the openness of the

environment and it feels that the Android is not just an Mobile operating system, but it

is a completely Open software development environment for mobile phones.

Android’s entry seems very successful, which is driven by the worldwide acceptance,

and the thirst for an open source mobile environment backed by countless application

development companies and telecommunication leaders. In fact, that every other

Mobile OS vendors had identified Android as an acute and critical threat to their



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5 Security Issues

It is quite difficult to discuss all the security issues, as no Android

phone is build yet. By the prediction, Android mobile phone platform is

going to be more secure than Apple’s iPhone or any other device in the

long run. There are several solutions nowadays to protect Google

phone from various attacks. One of them is security vendor McAfee, a

member of Linux Mobile (LiMo) Foundation. This foundation joins

particular companies to develop an open mobile-device software

platform. Many of the companies listed in the LiMo Foundation have

also become members of the Open Handset Alliance (OHA). As a result,

Linux secure coding practice should successfully be built into the

Android development process. However, open platform has its own

disadvantages, such as source code vulnerability for black-hat hackers.

In parallel with great opportunities for mobile application developers,

there is an expectation for exploitation and harm. Stealthy Trojans

hidden in animated images, particular viruses passed from friend to

friend, used for spying and identity theft, all these threats will be active

for a long run. Another solution for such attacks is SMobile Systems

mobile package.

Security Shield

An integrated application that includes anti-virus, anti-spam,

firewall and other mobile protection is up and ready to run on the

Android operating system. Currently, the main problem is availability

for viruses to pose as an application and do things like dial phone

numbers, send text messages or multi-media messages or make

connections to the Internet during normal device use. It is possible for

somebody to use the GPS feature to track a person’s location without

their knowledge. Hence SMobile Systems is ready to notify and block


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these secure alerts. But the truth is that it is not possible to secure

your mobile device or personal computer completely, as it connects to

the internet. And neither the Android phone nor other devices will

prove to be the exception.

6 Applications

At the top of Android Architecture we have all the applications, which are used by the final user. By installing different applications, the user can turn his mobile phone into the unique, optimized and smart mobile phone. Few applications are

Fig: Applications of ANDROID

6.1 Application Building Blocks

Google provides three versions of SDK: for Windows, for Mac OSX and one for

Linux. The developer can use Android plugin for Eclipse IDE or other IDEs such as

intelliJ. First step for Android developer is to decompose the prospective application into


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the components, which are supported by the platform. The major building blocks are



Intent Receiver


Content Provider

Activity – user interface component, which corresponds to one screen at time. It means

that for the simple application like Address Book, the developer should have one activity

for displaying contacts, another activity component for displaying more detailed

information of chosen name and etc. Intent Receiver – wakes up a predefined action

through the external event. For example, for the application like Email Inbox, the

developer should have intent receiver and register his code through XML to wake up an

alarm notification, when the user receives email. Service – a task, which is done in the

background. It means that the user can start an application from the activity window and

keep the service work, while browsing other applications.

For instance, he can browse Google Maps application while holding a call or

listening music while browsing other applications. Content Provider – a component,

which allows sharing some of the data with other processes and applications. It is the best

way to communicate the applications between each other. Secondly, a developer should

predefine and list all components, which he wants to use in the specific

AndroidManifest.xml file. It is a required file for all the applications and is located in the

root folder. It is possible to specify all global values for the package, all the components

and its classes used, intent filters, which describe where and when the certain activity

should start, permissions and instrumentation like security control and testing. Here is an

example of AndroidManifest.xml file:


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• Giants like Nokia and Microsoft are not the part of the OHA, so Android

won’t become so powerful for now. It depends on the stability and

continuous support for the platform.

• Microsoft’s ‘windows mobile’ has a big selling point in the form of ,

its integrity with Microsoft Office and other Microsoft-owned tools,

So, Android has to concentrate on developing PC compatibility apps

using the Google Office Apps.

• We are not talking about the very success of Android, since it has its own

challenges, like its development task. Though, Android is a complete mobile

handset platform, encompassing a mobile operating system, a browser , some

middle ware, and other application environment, that all depends upon the

future investments, and innovations upon the development of an all-

encompassing new technology.

Apart from Google, Apps developers and vendors are predicted to be the major

beneficiaries, since they would make most out of the Android with its wider market

structure backed by all the members of OHA, developing different versions of Android,

and driving the Android's apps market to a new edge, defeating all the others.


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8 References:

• From Gizmodo's

http ://gizm /5395801 /an droid- 20- review - a lm os t-hum an

• Learn Android

http ://develop /gu ide/bas ics /w ha t-is -a ndroid.htm l

• Introduction to Android by Jason Chen who is developer advocate

at Google h tt p :// www .y o u t u b e .co m / wa t ch?v = x1 Z Z - R3p_ w 8

• What Apple did for smartphones, Google may do for all the rest

h tt p :// www . e co n o m i s t .co m / d is p l ay s t m ?

s t ory_ i d = 12304882 & f s rc = n w l