and mentWeb viewIntelligence and mental abilities. Maybe you will see that there is a number of expected definitions for intelligence, but finally you will find that there

Download and mentWeb viewIntelligence and mental abilities. Maybe you will see that there is a number of expected definitions for intelligence, but finally you will find that there

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<p>Intelligence and mental abilities</p> <p>Maybe you will see that there is a number of expected definitions for intelligence, but finally you will find that there is not a certain definition</p> <p>Intelligence is a hypothetical concept </p> <p>*There are some definitions of the intelligence:-</p> <p>1- to adapt yourself Darwin says that the person who has the ability to adapt himself, will be able to survive # So it is expected that who can adapt himself better, he could be more intelligent2- the ability to think in an abstracting way 3- the ability to solve problems and use the past experience </p> <p>Some people defined intelligence as:- the special ability to distinguish yourself from other people </p> <p>:- ( ) special abilities </p> <p>Intelligence tests:- We can measure intelligence by indirect way because it is hypothetical </p> <p>*Intelligence hypothesis:-</p> <p>-charles spearman :- correlation coefficient </p> <p> he devided the intelligence into general and particular intelligence </p> <p>general intelligence:- that all people have it and enables them to survive </p> <p>-thurstone:- 7 1-spatial ability 2-perceptual speed 3-numerical ability 4-verbal meaning 5-memory6-word fluency7-reasoning </p> <p>-cattell :- said that there are two types of intelligence *Crystallized intelligence *Fluid intelligence :- spatial and visual imagery root memory ability to notice visual details </p> <p>Females are better than males in visual details ( Men look at things in general ways, but females look at things in details)</p> <p>Cattell said that Education can increase the crystallized intelligence but Fluid intelligence could be inherit( genetic (</p> <p> Fluid intelligence </p> <p>-robert Sternberg :- triarchic theory of intelligence </p> <p>* In his hypothesis there are 3 types of intelligence:-1- Analytic intelligence 2- Creative intelligence :- ( )respond well in new situations:- (creative intelligence) </p> <p>3- Practical intelligence </p> <p> (contexts) </p> <p> Adaption </p> <p>e.g when you are in certain environment and you can not change yourself, you will change the environment </p> <p># In Analytical intelligence when we acquire knowledge there is subsidiary () type:- Experiential intelligence </p> <p>In practice, when you are good person in practice after 10 years you will be expert</p> <p>The experience can be transferred to another things </p> <p>-Howard Gardner:- he identify the intelligence as ( the all functions of central cortex) </p> <p>His hypothesis :- multiple intelligences</p> <p>8 Slides 11 </p> <p>1-Logical-mathematical </p> <p>Left parietal lobe and part of frontal lobe </p> <p>2-Linguistic </p> <p>Left hemisphere </p> <p>3- Spatial :- right hemisphere, specially right parietal lobe </p> <p>graphic design </p> <p>4- musical:- right hemisphere</p> <p>5- Bodily-kinesthetic :- the ability to use body parts while doing something such as dancing</p> <p>6-Inter-personal :- your ability to recognize your weaknesses and strengths and mental and bodily abilities so you can choose what you want </p> <p>When you are about to choose a job, you should make matching between your mental and bodily abilities with this job and its requirements, if the matching is good you may be successful</p> <p>7-Intra-personal:- your ability to perceive individual differences so you adjust your way of dealing with other people(mentally, emotionally..)</p> <p>8-Naturalistic: - </p> <p>Is talent intelligence?? </p> <p>**There is something called:Academic intelligence: </p> <p>(IQ)</p> <p>-There is correlation between IQ &amp; achievement</p> <p> IQ </p> <p>Academic intelligence does not mean that the person is successful in life</p> <p>achievement&amp; intelligence are not in cause-effect relationship</p> <p>Emotional intelligence :- intelligence that measure the success in life</p> <p> ( ...)</p> <p>For example a professor (academic intelligence) went to buy or fit something, sellers might have bluffed him ( he does not have emotional intelligence)</p> <p>-Goleman:- his hypothesis called emotional intelligence</p> <p>He said that its contain 5 components:-</p> <p>1-knowing ones own emotions </p> <p>So when he aware of (knowing) his emotions, he can control them and use it to communicate with other peoplewhen you control your emotions you will be in better health as well</p> <p>2- Managing ones own emotions</p> <p>3-using emotions to motivate oneself </p> <p>4-recognizing the emotions of other people </p> <p>5-managing relationships </p> <p>People who has emotional intelligence is more successful in life than who has academic intelligencemore emotional intelligence </p> <p>Than academic intelligence</p> <p>-Binet-simon scale :- 1905 in Parisput up to distinguish school children that they benefit from curriculum ()and children that do not (so they need adaptation in curriculum)</p> <p>In this test the used number of concepts:-</p> <p>1-chronological age ( - )</p> <p>2-mental age :- the performance average of certain age group in intelligence test </p> <p>In that time they suppose:- if a childs mental age is less than his chronological age in about 2 years then he will need special education or modification in curriculum</p> <p>Stanford :- he modifies Binet-simon test on AMERICAN environment and called it Stanford-Binet ( )</p> <p>In JORDAN the modifies it at 1978</p> <p>Intelligence percent(IQ equation) = mental age/chronological age*100%</p> <p>then it was called TERMAN OF IQ</p> <p>this process is not in use now and instead of it deviation intelligence put up by WECHSLER**tables in each test (e.g child 10 years old) give you the IQ for him in comparison with children (10 years old) from the same age group not 12 or 6</p> <p>IQ average in population = 100</p> <p>Standard deviation in population= 15</p> <p>68% in society their IQ from 85 to 115 ( the higher one)</p> <p>34% in society their IQ from 100 to 115</p> <p>34% in society their IQ from 85 to 100</p> <p>In the figure of page 6 (in the slides):- </p> <p>So the talented people are few and people who have mental retardation also are few</p> <p>*** Digit span test:- measure short-term memory</p> <p>-Wechsler :- the first edition of Wechsler intelligence test was called WECHSLER BILVUE intelligence scale then whechsler and Wechsler 1 and Wechsler 2 there were review copies</p> <p>*Wechsler tests divided into 2 parts :-</p> <p>1- verbal part</p> <p>2- performance part </p> <p>So person will have 3 scores : Full IQ scores, Verbal IQ score, Performance IQ score</p> <p>Enables you to have better information about person intelligence percent</p> <p>There are individual and collective intelligence</p> <p>Collective intelligence </p> <p>Disadvantage of collective intelligence:- it does not help in diagnosis process (people who have a problem) permanent disability </p> <p>Performance test:- made for elimination of berbal ingredient </p> <p> Cross-culture test(culture-free) Nonverbal tests </p> <p>It means that this tests are not associated with culture and usually nonverbal ( )</p> <p>e.g: cubes test (they give you 9 cubes and each time they make image for cubes and ask you to make similar image ) so it is cross-culture </p> <p> 4 </p> <p>Things should be available in tests:-</p> <p>1- Reliability </p> <p>Test gives similar or identical results if we remake it in the same conditions on the same people (constant results)</p> <p> High correlation </p> <p>e.g when we say this person is reliable :- you can trust himthis instrument is reliable:- gives you constant thing</p> <p>2-Validity </p> <p>3-Content validity:- high correlation between the content of subject and the test you make </p> <p>4-Criterion-validity </p> <p> so you measure the test by correspond it on ideal thing</p> <p>Test content scores</p> <p>There are a lot of criticisms in intelligence tests </p> <p>Uses of intelligence tests:-1- diagnosis </p> <p>2- educational</p> <p>3- career</p> <p>they do not make these tests(IQ) without certain goal and results are not for public and who make it must be professtional </p> <p>The effectiveness of environment on intelligence:-</p> <p>Pair identical twins (IQ for them was 90%)</p> <p>Identical twins (IQ is lower)</p> <p>Twins with the same genes and the same environment the IQ for them was higher than twins with same genes but different environment</p> <p>Gender differences:- </p> <p>General IQ looks like there are no differences between males and females in intelligence</p> <p>But in special abilities :- like spatial ability, males will be better </p> <p>If IQ was too high or too low , males percent will be more in these cases</p> <p>Females are better in counting than males</p> <p> IQ </p> <p> IQ </p> <p>So some cultures are affected by motivation </p> <p>Mental retardation </p> <p>3 things that prove mental retardation</p> <p>1- IQ two standard deviation below average ( 70)</p> <p>2- Problem in adaptive behavior </p> <p> : </p> <p>** 4 </p> <p>** ( ) </p> <p>3- This occurs in the developmental period (until age of 18)</p> <p>IQ (55-69) you can educate and train them not for going to college but to help them in life ( )</p> <p>Training him:- doing works and skills that do not require high mental abilities </p> <p>In some countries like Jordan, services increase by category</p> <p> ( ...)</p> <p>IQ (40-54) you can train him(day reactivities) but u can not educate them</p> <p> :- ..</p> <p>IQ (26-36) you can not either educate or train them and they can not do self care skills so they need special attention </p> <p>IQ below 24 developmental delay </p> <p>Creativity </p> <p>The ability to produce social and new things </p> <p>One of the methods used to identify gifted is:- IQ</p> <p>IQ will be (&gt;=130) </p> <p>e.g mendel </p> <p>his academic side was low but he is creative</p> <p>Open-ended tests:- unfamiliar answers</p> <p>**:- </p> <p>Called conversion thinking </p> <p>Called diversion thinking </p> <p>Good luck </p> <p>Done by:- Nidaa M Raqab</p> <p>1</p>