alexander the great

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Alexander the Great

Alexander the GreatMacedonia rose to power and took control of Greece in the years that followed the Peloponnesian War. Most Greeks considered Macedonians backwardLived in villages, not citiesSpoke form of Greek unintelligible to other Greeks359 BC, Macedonias fortune changed when Philip II took throneThe Rise of MacedoniaOne of Philips first actions as kingAdopted phalanx system, but gave soldiers longer spearsIncluded larger bodies of cavalry and more archers Set out to conquer GreeceFaced little oppositionQuickly crushed armiesConquered all but SpartaArmy ReorganizationAlexander Becomes KingPhilips conquests might have continued, but he was assassinatedTitle, plans for conquests fell to son, Alexander the GreatAlexander only 20, but had been trained to rule almost from birthLearned warfare and politics from father, mother, and AristotleAlexanders ConquestsAlexander faced almost immediately with revolts in GreeceSet out to reestablish controlUsed harsh measures to show rebellion not toleratedCrushed Theban army and sold people into slavery, burned cityEmpire BuildingEmpireWith Greece under control, Alexander decided to build empire

334 BC, led army into Asia to take on Persians

Army relatively small, but well trained, fiercely loyal

Persian army huge, disorganizedCampaignsWithin year Alexanders army had won victory against Persians in Asia Minor

Moved south to Phoenicia, Egypt; welcomed as liberator, named new pharaoh

Next destroyed Persian army near Gaugamela, in what is now Iraq; caused Emperor Darius III to flee

Expanding the EmpireWith defeat of Darius, Alexander the master of Persian world Troops marched to Persepolis, a Persian capital, burned it to ground as sign of victory But Alexander not satisfied with size of empireLed army deeper into Asia, winning more victoriesLed army to the Indus, perhaps to conquer IndiaSoldiers had had enough, refused to proceed farther from homeAlexander forced to turn back to west

End of the EmpireDeath at Early AgeAlexanders empire largest world had ever seen

Did not rule very long

323 BC, Alexander fell ill while in Babylon

Died a few days later at age 33

Alexander died without naming heirPower StruggleGenerals fought each other for power

In the end, the empire was divided among three most powerful generals

Called themselves kingsAntigonus became king of Macedonia and GreeceSeleucus ruled Persian Empire Ptolemy ruled EgyptSummarize

Why did Alexanders empire break apart after his death?Answer(s): He did not name an heir, so the empire was divided among three powerful generals.By bringing together a number of diverse peoples in his empire, Alexander helped create a new type of culture. It was no longer purely Greek, or Hellenic, but Hellenistic, or Greeklike.Alexander made conscious effort to bring people, ideas togetherMarried two Persian princessesEncouraged soldiers to marry Persians as wellBlending CulturesAppointed officials from various cultures to help ruleBuilt dozens of new cities, encouraged Greek settlers to move into themMost new cities named AlexandriaNew CitiesAlexandria, EgyptLocated at mouth of Nile, where it met MediterraneanIdeal location for tradeHarbor once busiest in worldMost Famous CityThe Hellenistic WorldLives of women also changed significantly in Hellenistic Period

Women had few rights in earlier Greek city-states

Lives began to improve after Alexander, though women still not equal to men

Gained rights to receive education, own propertyLife for WomenShift from Hellenic Greece to Hellenistic world brought drastic changes to lives

Most obvious change, how people were governed

City-state no longer main political unit, replaced by kingdom

Traditional Greek democracy gave way to monarchyDrastic ChangesLife in the Hellenistic WorldThe most influential new school was Stoicism, with emphasis on reason, self-discipline, emotional control and personal morality. Stoics believed people should find their proper role in society and fulfill it.Blending of cultures brought significant changes Exchange of ideas from different culturesNew advances in philosophy, literature and scienceNew schools of philosophy developed in Alexanders empireOne called Cynicism; students rejected pleasure, wealth, social responsibilityPeople live according to naturePhilosophyHellenistic AchievementsPeople should seek pleasure, considered good; try to avoid pain, considered evilTo find pleasure, develop close friendships with people who share similar ideasEpicureans