Aim: Was the Scientific Revolution truly revolutionary?
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DESCRIPTIONI Science and astronomy in the Classical World A) Aristotles View of the Universe (4th century BCE): 55 crystalline spheres, celestial objects attached to spheres, spheres rotated at different velocities, the Earth was at the center.
Aim: Was the Scientific Revolution truly revolutionary?
Period 4: Did You Know? The word science comes from the latin root scientia, meaning knowledge. I Science and astronomy in the Classical World
A) Aristotles View of the Universe (4th century BCE): 55 crystalline spheres, celestial objects attached to spheres, spheres rotated at different velocities, the Earth was at the center. Aristotles Prime Mover
Astronomy in the Classical World Continued Earth is at the center of the Universe Celestial objects are made from perfect material and cannot change their properties (e.g., their brightness). All motion in the heavens is uniform circular motion Aristotles Prime Mover Astronomy in the Classical World Continued
B) The Ptolemaic Universe : Ideas about uniform circular motion and epicycles were catalogued by Ptolemy in 150 CE in his book the Almagest. This view was officially endorsed by the medieval Church. II Science in the Middle Ages
A) During the Muslim Golden Age, scientific experimentation was encouraged. They had universities, trained doctors, invented vaccines for smallpox, algebra, etc B) In Medieval Western Europe, true science was rare. The exception were alchemists (they tried to change ordinary metals into gold), but they had to often hide their experiments from the Church, who discouraged scientific inquiry. Science in the Middle Ages Continued
B) In the Middle Ages, the Church officially endorsed Ptolemys Geocentric Model of the universe. Philosopher-theologian Thomas Aquinas ( ) rediscovered Aristotle and blended his ideas with medieval theology. Medieval Representation of Ptolemaic Universe
REASSURANCE Divine power would triumph over corruption and decay of earthly things and lift the soul to an afterlife in heaven COMFORT Individual could locate God. Souls destination would be above or below. STABILITY Earth wasat center. Mankind important in Gods plan Medieval Representation of Ptolemaic Universe The outermost sphere became the Christian heaven.
Aristotles Prime Mover became the God of Christian theology. Earth at center represented the Christian Gods concern for mankind. III Influence of the Renaissance
A) The Renaissance (15th 16th centuries) led to the Scientific Revolution. 1. Humanism encouraged individual achievement, and knowledge of Classical civilizations (Greek and Roman). 2. The printing press spread new knowledge 3. People began to question the Catholic Church 4. The Medici family built an astronomical observatory and financially sponsored Renaissance scientists including Galileo! IV Copernicus vs. Ptolemy
A) 1453 Nicolaus Copernicus , an astronomer and mathematician, published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres. In it, he proposed the Heliocentric Model of the universe; that the sun is the center of the universe. The Heliocentric System offers a simple explanation for varying brightness and retrograde motion. However, like Ptolemy, he mistakenly believed that planetary orbits were perfect circles. Copernicus vs. Ptolemy Continued
B) Tycho Brahe (1546 1601) observed the movements of stars and planets every night for years, and recorded the data. His assistant, Johannes Kepler (1571 1630), used Brahes data to prove that Copernicuss Heliocentric model was correct. Kepler was also the first to correctly explain planetary motion. Johannes Kepler Why do you think that Brahe and Kepler wanted to gather more evidence? Wasnt Copernicuss findings enough? Tycho Brahe VGalileo (1564 1642) A) Galileo Galilei from Pisa was an astronomer, philosopher, and mathematician. He was appointed Royal Professor of Mathematics and Philosophy under Medici Ferdinand I. B) With the support of the Medicis, Galileo began to experiment more freely. C) In 1609 he invented a refracting telescope, which allowed him to magnify celestial objects up to 30x their size. D) He was the first to observe 4 moons of Jupiter, and mountains on our moon. This evidence without a doubt proved Copernicus was right. E) 1633 he was tried before the Inquisition for heresy. He was forced to recant and to live under house arrest. However, he allegedly mumbled it does move after his recantation. Jupiter and its 4 Largest Moons
Today scientists estimate that Jupiter has 60+ moons! Io (far left) is the most volcanic place in our galaxy. Europa (center left) has a surface made of water ice. It is possible that a liquid ocean of water is under the ice is there life there? Primary Sources: Galileo
I do not feel obliged to believe that the same god who has endowed us with sense, reason and intellect has intended us to forgo their use. Galileo Galilei 2. The proposition that the Sun is the center of the world and does not move from its place is absurd and false philosophically and formally heretical, because it is expressly contrary to Holy Scripture. Trial of Galileo,June 1633 More than 350 years after the Roman Catholic Church condemned Galileo, Pope John Paul II is poised to rectify one of the Church's most infamous wrongs -- the persecution of the Italian astronomer and physicist for proving the Earth moves around the SunNY Times Oct 31, 1992 What is the mission statement for the Vatican Observatory? From Leo XIIIs letter establishing the Vatican Observatory in 1891, his intent was to show that the Church and her Pastors are not opposed to true and solid science, whether human or divine, but that they embrace it, encourage it, and promote it with the fullest possible dedication. VIsaac Newton ( ) Newton discovered the force of gravity is what keeps the planets in orbit around the sun. Newton is also credited with inventing calculus. If I have seen further than others, it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants. - Newton Some historians believe that Gottfried Leibnitz actually invented calculus before Newton, and that Newton stole the credit! Newton Liebnitz Newtons Laws for Dummies!
Law of Universal Gravitation: Prior to Newton and Galileo, most people thought that the forces causing motions on Earth and the forces causing the stars and planets to move were different forces. Newton realized that the same forces and the same laws of physics apply everywhere in the universe. Force of Gravity: There is a gravitational force acting between any two objects in the universe. There is a gravitational force between you and Earth. There is also a gravitational force between you and the Sun, between you and all the other planets, and between you and the people sitting next to you. Why do we fall down towards Earth rather than towards the Sun, another planet, or the people next to us? The force of gravity between us and Earth is larger than the force from any of these other objects. The force of gravity between two objects depends on the masses of the two objects and the distance between the centers of the two objects. Newtons Laws for Dummies!
Gravitational Force and Mass: The more the masses of the objects, the larger the gravitational force between them. We don't fall towards the people next to us because they are much less massive than Earth. But the Sun is more massive than Earth. Why don't we fall to the Sun? It is much farther away. As the distance between two objects gets larger, the gravitational force between them gets smaller. Gravitational Force and Distance: When you are standing on Earth with your toes buried in the dirt, it may seem like the distance between you and Earth is zero. But, the distance is measured between the centers of the two objects not the edges. So the distance between you and Earth is the distance from the center of the Earth to your belly button. As the distance between two objects gets larger, the gravitational force between them gets smaller. It never gets to zero; it just gets too small to matter. If you were suddenly suspended in space twice as far from the center of the Earth as you are now. the gravitational force would be one fourth as much as it is on Earth's surface. If you weigh 100 pounds, you would suddenly weigh 25 pounds. No matter how far you got from Earth, there would still be some, very small, gravitational force between you and Earth. Astronauts in space are weightless because they are falling around the Earth, not because there is no gravity in space. There is gravity everywhere.. -Paul A. Heckert, 2008 Newton's ideas about the universe held sway until Einstein introduced the general theory of relativity. But for most of what we observe in our daily experience, Newton's laws remain perfectly valid today. Nova.com Dont Jump into the Black Hole!!
Black holes due to their massive densities may have the greatest effects of gravity in the universe! For fun facts on black holes: VI Other Discoveries from the Scientific Revolution
Scientist Discovery Leeuwenhoek Perfected the microscope. Was the first to see microorganisms. Robert Boyle The first recognized modern chemist. He argued for the scientific method, and that all matter consists of tiny particles. Priestly and Lavoisier Discovered the existence of oxygen. Medieval vs. Scientific Revolution Understandings of Human Anatomy
The image above shows points for blood-letting (a common western European medical practice in the middle ages). Andreas Vesalius (1514 1564) is often called the father of modern anatomy. VII Scientific Method Over time, a step-by-step process of discovery developed that became known as the scientific method. VIII Philosophy and the Scientific Revolution
A) Francis Bacon: In order to test potential truths, or hypotheses, Bacon devised a method whereby scientists set up experiments, and attempt to prove their hypotheses wrong Bacon insisted that experiments must be consistently repeated before truth can be known. Khan Academy Knowledge is power. Half of science is putting forth the rightquestions. But by far the greatest obstacle to the progressof science and to the undertaking of new tasksand provinces therein is found in thisthatmen despair and think things impossible. - Francis Bacon VIII Philosophy and the Scientific Revolution
B) Rene Descartes:Descartes popularized deductive reasoning. You begin with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examine the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion. The scientific method uses deduction to test hypotheses and theories. However, If the generalization is wrong, the conclusion may be logical, but it may also be untrue. For example, the argument, "All bald men are grandfathers. Harold is bald. Therefore, Harold is a grandfather," is valid logically but it is untrue because the original statement is false. - Alina Bradford LiveScience 2015 I think, therefore I am. IX Women and the Scientific Revolution
Samuel Pepys (male), 1667 After dinner, I walked to a meeting of the Royal Society of Scientists in expectation of the duchess of Newcastle (author of A World Made by Atomes 1653), who had desired to be invited to the Society. She was invited after much debate, pro and con; it seems many being against it. The duchess had been a good, [attractive] woman; but her dress so antique and her manner so ordinary, that I do not like her at all, nor did I hear her say anything that was worth hearing. Johann Theodor Jablonski, secretary to the Berlin Academy of Sciences, letter to the Academy president opposing Maria Winkelmann's application for membership in the Academy, 1710 I do not believe that Maria Winkelmann should continue to work on our official calendar of observations. It simply will not do. Even before her husband's death, the Academy was ridiculed because its calendar was prepared by a woman. If she were to be kept on in such a capacity, mouths would gape even wider. Gottfried Leibniz (male), German mathematician and philosopher, 1697 I have often thought that women of elevated mind advance knowledge more properly than do men. Women, whose position puts them above troublesome and laborious cares, are more detached and therefore more capable of contemplating the good and the beautiful. HW Questions How do YOU define the term scientific revolution? What are its origins? Explain the geocentric vs. heliocentric debate, including its origins, the scientists who challenged the Church, and its significance in history and our understanding of the universe. Why was Galileo put on trial? (*Use evidence from the primary sources) If you were Galileo, would you have admitted guilt? Describe the origins of the scientific method. Is the scientific method necessary? Explain. Using evidence from the primary sources, how would you describe the role of women during the scientific revolution? Did the scientific revolution render religion unnecessary? Explain. Was the scientific revolution truly revolutionary?Which is more enduring; a political revolution or an intellectual one? Key Vocabulary Alchemy Francis Bacon Robert Boyle Tycho Brahe
Copernicus Rene Descartes Galileo Galiei Geocentric Heliocentric Johannes Kepler Lavoisier Leeuwenhoek Isaac Newton Priestly and Ptolemy Refracting telescope Scientific Method Scientific revolution Andreas Vesalius