Agricultural Wastes

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<p>Agricultural WastesJiaming Liang1, Qingye Lu1,2, Robert Lerner1, Xiaohui Sun1, Hongbo Zeng2, Yang Liu1*</p> <p>ABSTRACT: Literature related to agricultural wastes and published in 2010 was summarized in this review. The review is divided into the following sections: reuse and recycle, waste treatment, waste characterization, waste management and pollution minimization.</p> <p>Nasuha et al. (2010) studied the adsorption of MB from aqueous solutions using a low-cost adsorbent, rejected tea, by the batch adsorption technique. The equilibrium adsorption was best described by the Langmuir isotherm model with maximum monolayer adsorption capacities that were found to be 147, 154 and 156 mg/g at 30, 40</p> <p>KEYWORDS: reuse, recycle, waste treatment, waste management, characterization</p> <p>and 50C, respectively.The adsorption of copper ions and MB onto the citric acid modified wheat straw (MWS) was studied by batch techniques. It was observed that the</p> <p>doi: 10.2175/106143011X13075599869614</p> <p>maximal adsorbed quantity of Cu2+ and MB on MWS at 293 K was 39.17 and 396.9 mg/g, respectively (Han et</p> <p>Reuse and recycle as sorbents Dye adsorption. Bello-Huitle et al. (2010) investigated the adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and phenol by granulated activated carbon made from castile and pecan nutshells. They found that a phosphoric acid activation ratio of 2 maximized the adsorption capacity of granulated activated carbon.</p> <p>al., 2010). The removal of tartrazine by coconut husks was examined by Gupta, Jain, et al. (2010). Their results indicated that the use of coconut husks for tartrazine removal was effective and can be used as a viable alternative to the activated carbon. Sharma (2010) reported that activated carbon can be prepared by pyrolyzing all agro-waste, rice husks, in the presence of ZnCl2. The activated carbon displayed</p> <p>1</p> <p>Department of Civil &amp; Environmental Engineering,</p> <p>both a microporous and mesoporous nature with a significant surface area of 180.50 m2/g. The adsorption of MB from its aqueous solutions by this activated carbon was found to increase with the adsorbent dose and temperature. Franca, Oliveira and Nunes (2010) evaluated the removal efficiency of malachite green (MG)</p> <p>Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2W2, Canada;*</p> <p>Corresponding author phone: 780-492-5515; Fax.2</p> <p>780-492-0249; E-mail: yang.liu@ualberta.ca Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4, Canada.</p> <p>1439 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation</p> <p>from aqueous solutions by the adsorbent obtained through the microwave activation of defective coffee press cake. The results showed that the produced adsorbent presents potential as an inexpensive and easily available alternative for the removal of cationic dyes in wastewater treatments. Franca, Oliveira, Saldanha et al. (2010) studied the removal of MG using mango seed husks. The results showed that mango seed husk is a suitable candidate for use as a biosorbent in the removal of cationic dyes. Iqbal et al. (2010) compared the Congo red dye removal abilities of melon, water melon and musk melon seeds in batch reactors. A pH of 2, a temperature of 20-30C and a 100-200 rpm stirring speed were found to be the optimal removal conditions for all three substances, with best to worst adsorption reported for melon seed (23.10 mg/g), musk melon seed (21.23 mg/g), and finally water melon seed (3.08 mg/g). The sorption of Congo red dye onto cashew nut shells (CNS) was studied by Kumar et al. (2010). Their results indicated that CNS could be employed as a low cost alternative compared to other commercial adsorbents in the removal of dyes from wastewater. Kumar (2010) developed a carbon adsorbent from neem sawdust that was effective for Congo red removal, with the removal efficiency decreasing with increased pH. Adsorption was found to</p> <p>in dye sorption was compared with activated carbon. It proved that coconut husk was an excellent low-cost adsorbent. Also, they (Mittal, Mittal et al., 2010) tested the adsorption ability of two wastes to remove light yellow SF (Yellowish) dye from wastewaters, one was an agricultural industry waste, deoiled soya, and the other was a waste of thermal power plants, bottom ash. The deoiled soya was found to have the percentage adsorption of 89.65% with a percentage recovery of 99.08%, while the bottom ash was 88.74% and 99.82% respectively. Biosorption of Reactive Red 195 from solutions using cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris Linneo was shown to be effective (Aksakal and Ucun, 2010). An alternative methodology for the removal of dyestuff, Rhodamine 6G (R6G), from aqueous solutions by using a new biosorbent, almond shell (Prunus dulcis) was presented (Senturk et al., 2010). The monolayer biosorption capacity of almond shell was found to be 32.6 mg/g by using Langmuir model equations. Thermodynamic parameters indicated that the</p> <p>biosorption of R6G onto almond shell was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40C. Ibrahim, Fatimah et al. (2010) prepared barley straw to be an adsorbent of the anionic dyes acid blue 40 and reactive blue 4 through modification with NaOH and cationic surfactant hexadecylpyridinium chloride</p> <p>be optimal at pH values of less than 3, and the kinetics were suitably described by a pseudo-second order model. Mittal, Jain et al. (2010) investigated the potential use of coconut husk, for the removal of Quinoline Yellow dye from wastewater and its efficiency</p> <p>monohydrate (CPC) under varying conditions. The results indicated that increasing the contact time increased dye removal, and adsorption was higher at an</p> <p>1440 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation</p> <p>acidic</p> <p>pH.</p> <p>The</p> <p>maximum</p> <p>adsorption</p> <p>capacity</p> <p>Basic Blue 3 (BB3), MB and Basic Yellow 11 (BY11) in both systems. Maximum sorption capacities were 23.64 mg/g, 28.25 mg/g and 67.11 mg/g for BB3, MB and BY11, respectively, in the single dye system. However, a decrease in the maximum sorption capacity was observed in the binary systems and this might result from competition between the same binding sites.</p> <p>determined from the Langmuir isotherm at 25C was 51.95 and 31.5 mg/g for acid blue 40 and reactive blue 4, respectively. Srinivas et al. (2010) used guava leaf powder as an adsorbent to remove the neutral violet dye stuff. It was observed that 91.3% neutral violet dye was removed using the adsorbant guava leaf powder. Investigations were done on the removal of methyl violet (MV) using dead leaves by Cengiz and Cavas (2010). The maximum adsorption capacity of the biomass was found to be 119.05 mg/g at 45C. The results implied that dead leaves were identified to be a significant and low-cost adsorbent to remove MV, which is especially beneficial to the Mediterranean Sea areas. The removal of basic yellow 21 dye using flax shives was investigated by Hassanein and Koumanova (2010). An adsorption capacity of 76.92 mg/g was observed, and it was found that the second-order kinetic model best described the reaction kinetics. Ozdes et al. (2010) evaluated the potential usage of almond shell (P. dulcis) in the removal of malachite green from aqueous solutions. They reported that almond shell could be employed as a low cost and easily available adsorbent for the removal of malachite green in wastewater treatment processes. The monolayer adsorption capacity of almond shell was found to be 29.0 mg/g. Ong et al. (2010) reported their studies using a biodegradable and low cost sorbent for various basic dyes in both single and binary dye solutions. The agricultural by-product has shown its potential to remove</p> <p>Chemical (other than dye) adsorption. Activated bamboo charcoal was used as a novel low-cost adsorbent to remove 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from aqueous solutions (Ma, Wang et al., 2010). It was found that about 90% 2,4-DCP was removed from the solution within the first 5 minutes. Shaarani and Hameed (2010) investigated the potential feasibility of activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunch for the removal of 2,4-DCP from an aqueous solution. The activated carbon was prepared via chemical activation with phosphoric acid and it was shown to be a promising material for adsorption of 2,4-DCP from aqueous solutions, with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 232.56 mg/g at 30C. Batch adsorption of phenol from real</p> <p>wastewater and a synthetically prepared solution was tested using date-pit activated carbon (El-Naas et al., 2010). Besides, they found that using ethanol to regenerate the saturated activated carbon was possible,, with an 86% efficiency after four cycles. The adsorption of phenol on highly porous novel corn grain-based activated carbons (CG-ACs) (&gt;2000 m2/g) was assessed in a batch mode (Park et al., 2010). It was found that the</p> <p>1441 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation</p> <p>influences</p> <p>of</p> <p>physical</p> <p>properties</p> <p>and</p> <p>energetic</p> <p>temperature did not impact the adsorption efficiency. Activated carbons, produced by physical steam activation of olive kernel, corn cobs, rapeseed stalks, and soya stalks were tested for bromopropylate removal from water. It was found that corn cobs had the best adsorption capacity, and that biomass derived activated carbons could achieve equal bromopropylate removals when compared to commercial activated carbons (Ioannidou et al., 2010). Mahramanlioglu et al. (2010) studied the adsorption of pyridine on acid treated spent bleaching earth. The Lagergren first order rate equation was used to describe the adsorption rate of pyridine and maximum adsorption was found to occur at pH 6.5. Activated carbons were produced from</p> <p>heterogeneity nature of CG-ACs on phenol adsorption efficiency were significant. Specifically, the increase in the phenol adsorption capacity was observed when increasing the fraction of microporosity, which was likely due to the micropore filling. The adsorption of 4-nitrophenol by acid activated jute stick char in the batch mode was investigated by Ahmaruzzaman and Gayatri (2010) at three different temperatures. The authors found that increasing temperature decreased the adsorption</p> <p>efficiency. Activated carbon was prepared by apricot stones for the removal of phenol and p-nitrophenol (Petrova et al., 2010). It was found that the adsorption capacity of the produced activated carbon was 152 mg/g for phenol and 179 mg/g for nitrophenol. Coir pith, a waste biomass from coconut coir industry, was used to prepare activated carbon with ZnCl2 for the removal of 2-chlorophenol from aqueous solutions (Subha and Namasivayam, 2010). The</p> <p>agricultural waste corncobs using a variety of different activation strategies and activators for hydrogen</p> <p>adsorption (Sun and Webley, 2010). The microporous carbon with the largest BET specific surface area showed H2 adsorption capacities up to 2.0 wt% at 77K under 1 atm pressure and 0.44 wt% at 298 K at 5 MPa. The removal of ammonium from aqueous solutions using zeolite NaY prepared from rice husk ash waste was investigated (Yusof et al., 2010). The cation exchange capacities of the zeolites were measured as 3.15, 1.46 and 1.34 meq/g for zeolite Y, powdered mordenite and granular mordenite, respectively. The monolayer</p> <p>Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 149.3 mg/g, which indicated that zinc chloride-activated coir pith carbon is economically more effective compared to commercial activated carbon. The use of sugarcane bagasse was found to be very efficient for the removal of gasoline and n-heptane from 5% aqueous solutions (Brandao et al., 2010). Using CPC modified barley straw, Ibrahim, Wang et al. (2010) investigated the removal of emulsified canola oil from wastewater. The study showed that the maximum adsorption capacity was at a neutral pH and the</p> <p>adsorption capacity for zeolite Y (42.37 mg/g) was found to be higher than that of powdered mordenite (15.13 mg/g) and granular mordenite (14.56 mg/g).</p> <p>Metal ion adsorption. Activated guava seed</p> <p>1442 Water Environment Research, Volume 83, Number 10Copyright 2011 Water Environment Federation</p> <p>carbon (AGSC) and modified guava seed (MGS) were used to adsorb Ni (II). The results suggested that the maximum adsorption capacities of AGSC and MGS were 18.05 and 32.05 mg/g at the pH of 6 respectively (Zewail and El-Garf, 2010). Coconut oilcake activated carbon showed more adsorption efficiency than neem oilcake activated carbon (thermally activated at 800C) for the removal of nickel (II) from wastewater (Hema and Srinivasan, 2010). Adsorption of both activated carbons was best described by pseudo-second order kinetics and Tempkin isotherms. Gupta, Nadeem et al. (2010) measured the removal of Pb (II) using rice bran adsorption, as a function of pH, temperature, contact time and the initial metal concentration. Results indicated that a pH range of 3.5-4.5 was effective, the optimal temperature was 25C and the removal was best fit by Langmuir isotherms. The ability of modified soda lignin, extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunches, to remove Pb(II) under varying conditions was investigated by Ibrahim, Ngah et al. (2010). Modified soda lignin was found to be an effective adsorbent with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 46.72 mg/g at 47C. Pb(II) ions were tested for removal by rubber leaf powder, treated with potassium permanganate and sodium carbonate (Kamal et al., 2010). The results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of lead was 95.3 mg/g. Li, Zheng et al. (2010) studied the removal of Pb2+ in modified areca waste from aqueous solutions with the Fenton reagent. The monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be 3.37 mg/g at pH 6.6</p> <p>and 323 K. A new kind of orange peel (OP) biosorbent containing the extractant Cyanex 272 was developed to remove Pb(II) from aqueous solutions (Lu et al., 2010). The maximum adsorption capacity was improved, with the order of the adsorption capacities being 272SCO (1.30 mol/kg) &gt; SCO (1.26 mol/kg) &gt; 272CO (1.20 mol/kg) &gt; 27200 (1.02 mol/kg) &gt; CO (0.62 mol/kg). Mohammadi et al. (2010) prepared activated carbon from Sea-buckthorn stones to remove Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. It was proposed that the produced activated carbons from the Amygdalus scoparia shell were an alternative low-cost adsorbent for the adsorption of Pb(II). Cao and Harris (2010) produced biochar by heating dairy manures at temperatures below 500C. They found that the biochar was capable of adsorbing Pb (up to 100%) and atrazine (up to 77%). Ofomaja et al. (2010a) studied the sorption of lead(II) onto pine cone powder (PCP). The effect of NaOH treatment on the kinetics of lead(II) uptake was also evaluated. Their results revealed that NaOH treatment changed the pattern of the biosorptio...</p>