agricultural revolution paleolithic era neolithic era advanced civilization
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AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONPaleolithic eraNeolithic eraAdvanced civilization
Paleo: Old Lithic: StonePaleolithic= Old Stone Age, so called because early man used stone to make his tools and weapons.Paleolithic people lived in small family groups called clans. These clans got their food by hunting and gathering. Paleolithic clans were nomadic, meaning they moved from place to place in search of food and shelter. Paleolithic inventers made use of simple stone tools. They learned to make and control fire, which allowed them to cook and to protect themselves against cold environments. It is believed that Paleolithic clans were also responsible for developing the first oral, or spoken, language. They also are known for their pictographic cave art and statues.Paleolithic men and women were equally responsible for providing food. Men hunted, and women gathered and cared for the young.
Since gathering was more reliable than hunting, it is possible that Paleolithic societies may have been matriarchal, or dominated by females.
There is much evidence of women being presented as symbols of life and fertility. Many ancient religions looked upon the earth as a motherly being since the earth provided life.
It is thought that early man drew or made representations of his desires. Fertility statues, for instance, were created by clan members who hoped the women would produce children. Men who wished for successful hunts painted pictures of successful hunting journeys on cave walls..
AdaptationPeople changed their behavior in response to environmental conditions.
Ice AgeAn Ice Age is a period of extreme cold. Large glaciers of ice cover much of the continents. The last Ice Age, which ended about 10,000 years ago, made survival very hard for the nomadic hunter-gatherers. The manipulation of fire, development of cave shelters, and use of animal skins for warmth helped Paleolithic clans adapt to the cold. Still, finding food remained a challenge. The extreme weather conditions wiped out many plant and animal species. As hunting-and-gathering became less reliable, clans began to consider an alternative source of food production.
Neolithic Agricultural RevolutionAs clans migrated to warmer areas, they observed that plants could grow more abundantly if they received proper amounts of heat and water. They also discovered that they could re-plant the seeds of certain plants in order to produce more plants. This discovery revolutionized (completely changed) the way people lived. Families no longer had to follow the food. They could finally settle in one place and build permanent homes.
Variations on AgricultureAs agriculture spread farmers began to grow different crops that were suited to their different environments. These places where people began to settle down, grow crops, and start villages became known as the Cradles of Civilization.
Most civilizations developed in river valleys. This first civilization was Mesopotamia in Southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
Other river valley civilizations included Egypt (in the Nile Valley); India (in the Indus Valley); and China (in the Huang-He Valley).
In time, villages spread throughout Europe and the rest of the world.
The emergence of patriarchal societiesAs villages turned into cities, men took over the work of farming. Men became the primary food-providers. As a result, the role of women changed. Instead of being food providers, women became family caregivers. They raised children and worked inside their houses. Households and societies became male-dominated (patriarchal) institutions. The social equality that existed during the Paleolithic Era faded. The Neolithic Era had begun.Neo: NewLithic: StoneNeolithic: New Stone Age.The Agricultural Revolution marked the beginning of the Neolithic Era. A new economy (the way a society produces goods and services) developed around agriculture. The agricultural economic system: Farming and domestication (making plants and animals useful for human populations).
Neolithic farmers grew their own food and domesticated livestock animals (cows, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, etc.). These animals provided hides, wool, meat, and labor. Farmers used animals to help plow bigger fields for more planting. Bigger fields and more planting helped produce food surpluses. A surplus is an abundance (or large amount) of a particular resource.If farmers produced a food surplus, then others in society could specialize in other skills. Not everyone had to farm. Some people became weavers who made fine clothing, artisans who molded pottery for food storage, priests who lead religious services, soldiers, builders, and scribes (writers).
Job specialization helped early farming societies develop a strong infrastructure. Infrastructure are the systems (such as education, health, transportation, technology) that help a society produce goods and services more effectively. Strong economies have strong infrastructures.
Social classes developed because of job specialization. The upper classes were the rulers; they managed the city, its army, and religious life. The middle classes were the land-owning providers (farmers, merchants, artisans, and builders). The lower classes were the poor servants and laborers.Surplus, Specialization, infrastructure, social classes
Bronze AgeOne of the advanced skills developed by early specialists was metal-working. The first metal used effectively by man was copper. Copper was a natural metal that early societies used to make more advanced tools. Later, metalworkers mixed copper with tin to make bronze. Bronze became the metal of choice for weaponry.Public Works projectsAs technology became more advanced, early city governments ordered the construction of public works projects. Public works are building projects and services that improve the quality of life in the city. For instance, road construction and sanitation (street-cleaning) are examples of public works works that serve the public.Metal-workingPublic works projects
AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION: HARMFUL IMPACTS?SOCIAL INEQUALITY & SLAVERYThe rise of agriculture caused inequality between a) men and women; and b) rich and poor. In the Paleolithic Era, men and women were equal. Both provided food to feed the family. But in the Neolithic Era men became the food providers of the family. Since they provided the food, men began to feel more powerful. They began to see women as inferior, or less powerful.
The growth of food surpluses lead to job specialization. Certain skills and jobs were valued more highly than others. Those with highly valued skills were members of the upper social classes. Those without valuable skills were members of the lower classes. The upper classes gained wealth and power, while the lower classes struggled to survive.
In large populations, members of the upper class competed against one another for power. Owning slaves was a sign of wealth and power. Rich people relied on slave labor to serve on their farms or estates. Slavery in the early civilization was not based on race. Some people became slaves after they were captured in war. Others were debt slaves. If poor people could not repay their debts, then they often became slaves.
Agricultural surplus. . . . Advanced civilization.Culture:The way of life of a group of peoplePOLITICSRise of cities.
POLITICSGovernment and written lawsSOCIAL Complex religion;priests take an active role. ECONOMYJob specialization and social classes.SOCIALSystems of writing, art & architectureECONOMYPublic works projects(temples, roads, etc.)
Example of early civilization; located in ancient Palestine near the Dead Sea.