advertising and brand management

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    DAGMAR Approach

    Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results abbr. DAGMAR was an advertising model proposed by Russel H. Colley in 1961.



    Planning and Decision Making

    Measurement and Evaluation of Results

    According to DAGMAR, each purchase prospect goes through 4 steps:

    Unawareness to Awarenessthe consumer must first be aware of a brand or company

    Comprehensionhe or she must have a comprehension of what the product is and its benefits;

    Convictionhe or she must arrive at the mental disposition or conviction to buys the brand;

    Actionfinally, he or she actually buy that product.

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    These steps are also known as ACCA advertising formula. ACCA/DAGMAR is a descendant of AIDA advertising formula and considered to be more

    popular and comprehensive than AIDA. Developed for the measurement of advertising effectiveness it maps the states of mind that a consumer

    passes through.

    Important parts of the DAGMAR model are definitions of target audience, (people whom the advertising message is addressed to) and objectives

    (goals of advertising message)


    Define advertising objectives and measuring the results

    unawareness to Awareness

    Easy to Understand


    Practicality and costsDAGMAR is criticized for being difficult to implement and practical only for big companies with large marketing and

    advertising research budgets who can afford to establish quantitative benchmarks and measure communication results.

    Inhibits creativityDAGMAR is also criticized on the grounds that it can inhibit creativity by imposing too much influence or structure. The creative

    department may become too concerned with passing the numbers test rather than developing great ideas that result in unique and effective

    advertising. Many advertising people have blamed the lack of great creative ideas and campaigns in recent years on an over quantification of


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    Advertising Management

    Advertising management is a career path in the advertising industry. Advertising and promotions managers may work for an agency, a PR firm, a

    media outlet, or may be hired directly by a company to develop branding for the company's product or service.

    Promotion mix is a specific blend of Advertising, Sales Promotion, Public Relations, Personal Selling and Direct Marketing tools that the company

    uses to pursue its advertising and marketing Objectives.

    According to American Marketing Association:

    Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor.

    Basic Functions Of Advertising:

    Advertising performs 3 basic functions:

    1. Inform Function

    2. Persuasive Function

    3. Reminder Function

    Types of Advertising

    Product advertising

    Nonpersonal selling of a particular good or service

    The type of advertising the average person normally thinks of when talking about most promotional activities

    Institutional advertising

    Institutional advertising promotes a concept, an idea, a philosophy, or the good-will of an industry, company organization,

    person, geographic location, or government agency

    Corporate advertising

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    Types of Media Vehicles:

    Print media: Newspaper, magazines, pamphlets, visiting cards, yellow pages etc.

    Broadcast media: Radio, T.V, Cinema.

    Out door Advertising: Bill boards, hot air balloons, wall writings, hoardings etc.

    Transit advertising: buses, loud speakers

    Specialty advertising: T-shirts, caps, cups , Internet

    Advertising Strategies


    Emphasizes messages with direct or indirect promotional comparisons between competing brands. Often used by less

    dominant firms

    Celebrity Testimonials

    The use of celebrity spokespeople to try to boost the effectiveness of an advertising message

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    Accounts for about 20% of all U.S. ads. Improves product recognition

    Retail Advertising

    All advertising by retail stores that sell directly to the consuming public

    Varies widely in effectiveness

    Should be assigned to one person whose sole responsibility and authority is developing an effective retail advertising program

    Cooperative Advertising

    When a retailer and a manufacturer or wholesaler share advertising costs

    Interactive Advertising

    Interactive media are communication channels that induce message recipients to participate actively in the promotional effort.

    Creates a dialogue, providing more material as the user asks.

    Although the term has become nearly synonymous with e-commerce and the web, it also includes shopping mall kiosks, and

    text messages on cell phones.

    Setting the Advertising Objective

    Message About Product Details about the product play a prominent role in advertising for new and existing products. In fact, a very large

    percentage of product-oriented advertising includes some mention of features and benefits offered by the marketers product. Advertising

    can be used to inform customers of changes that take place in existing products. For instance, if a beverage company has purchased the

    brands of another company resulting in a brand name change, an advertising message may stress "New Name but Same Great Taste".

    Message About Price Companies that regularly engage in price adjustments, such as running short term sales (i.e., price markdown), can

    use advertising to let the market know of price reductions. Alternatively, advertising can be used to encourage customers to purchase now

    before a scheduled price increase takes place.

    Message About Other Promotions Advertising often works hand-in-hand with other promotional mix items. For instance, special sales

    promotions, such as contests, may be announced within an advertisement. Also, advertising can help salespeople gain access to new accounts

    if the advertising precedes the salespersons attempt to gain an appointment with a prospective buyer. This may be especially effective for a

    company entering a new market where advertising may help reduce the uncertainty a buyer has about a new company.

    Message About Distribution Within distribution channels, advertising can help expand channel options for a marketer by making

    distributors aware of the marketers offerings. Also, advertising can be used to let customers know locations where a product can be


    Determination Target audience

    In marketing and advertising, a target audience, is a specific group of people within the target market at which a product or the marketing

    message of a product is aimed at. (Kotler 2000)... For example, if a company sells new diet programs for men with heart disease problems (target

    market) the communication may be aimed at the spouse (target audience) who takes care of the nutrition plan of her husband and child.

    A target audience can be formed of people of a certain age group, gender, marital status, etc., e.g. teenagers, females, single people, etc. A

    combination of factors, e.g. men aged 2030 is a common target audience. Other groups, although not the main focus, may also be interested.

    Discovering the appropriate target market(s)and determining the target audience is one of the most important activities in marketing management

    (Niewenhuizen et al. 2000). The biggest mistake it's possible to make in targeting is trying to reach everybody and ending up appealing to no-one.

    Step 1

    Review the products and services you have available. Consider the features and benefits to a consumer who uses your products so you are able to

    narrow down exactly who would benefit from them. For example, a residential cleaning service benefits customers by saving them time; thus the

    target audience may be busy professionals or moms who need more time to balance home and family responsibilities.

    Step 2

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    Evaluate your own skills and areas of expertise to help choose a target audience. For example, a caterer with experience in large corporate events

    may choose to target that section of the market.

    Step 3

    Analyze your current customer files to determine who already utilizes your products or services. Look for similarities among your customers in

    terms of factors such as age, gender, income, education, job and ethnicity. Use this information to narrow down your target audience.

    Step 4

    Research to whom your competitors are marketing in their advertising. Look at the type of people who utilize those services and to which groups

    the marketing materials may appeal. Identify ways to look for slightly different target customers to attract a different segment of the market. For

    example, if another tutoring service markets toward families with young children who need help with math and reading, tailor your service to help

    high school students and those preparing to take standardized college entrance exams.

    Step 5

    Write a basic profile of the type of customers you want to target us