adhesion receptors in transmembrane signaling
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DESCRIPTIONThe role of cell. Adhesion Receptors in transmembrane signaling. Catalog. Introduction. Section 1. Section 2. Section 3. Introduction. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Adhesion Receptors in transmembrane signaling
Introduction. Section 1. Section 2. Section 3.
Cell adhesion is critical for the genesis and maintenance of both three-dimensional structure and normal function in tissues. The biochemical entities mediating cell adhesion are multiprotein complexes comprising three broad classes of macromolecules: the adhesion receptors,the extracellular matrix molecules, and the adhesion plaque proteins . Cell adhesion receptors are typically transmembrane glycoproteins that mediate binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules or to counter-receptors on other cells; these molecules determine the specificity of cell-cell or cell-ECM interaction.
The ECM proteins are usually fibrillar in nature and provide a complex structural and functional network that can interact simultaneously with multiple cell surface receptors. cell adhesion complexes are not simply static architectural entities. Rather, they are dynamic units that are capable of capturing and integrating signals from the extracellular environment . Moreover, the functions of cell adhesion complexes are regulated precisely by biochemical events within the cell. Thus cell adhesion receptors are at a nexus of two-way signaling between the cell and its external environment. All four types cell-adhesion (integrin, IgSF, cadherin, selectin) molecules have the potential to carry out this function.
Cells reside in a protein network, the extracellular matrix (ECM), which they secrete and mold into the intercellular space. The ECM exerts profound control over cells. The effects of the matrix are primarily mediated by integrins, a family of cell surface receptors that attach cells to the matrix and mediate mechanical and chemical signals from it.
Direct Signal Transduction by Integrins Integrins comprise a large family of cell surface receptors that are found in many animal species, ranging from sponges to mammals. They are composed of two subunits, and , and each combination has its own binding specificity and signaling properties. Most integrins recognize several ECM proteins. Conversely, individual matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, laminins, collagens, and vitronectin, bind to several integrins. Integrins can signal through the cell membrane in either direction: The extracellular binding activity of integrins is regulated from the inside of the cell (inside-out signaling), while the binding of the ECM elicits signals that are transmitted into the cell (outside-in signaling).
Recent studies have provided a better understanding of the signaling pathways activated by integrins in adherent cells, such as fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Adherent cells must be anchored to an appropriate ECM to survive. Depending partly on signals from the matrix, they either proliferate or exit the cell cycle and differentiate. This anchorage requirement is lost in neoplastic cells(). In this review, we focus on the integrin signals that control these basic cellular behaviors.
Integrin clustering The cytoplasmic tails of integrins are generally short and always devoid of enzymatic features. Hence, integrins transduce signals by associating with adapter proteins that connect the integrin to the cytoskeleton, cytoplasmic kinases, and transmembrane growth factor receptors.
Integrin signaling and assembly of the cytoskeleton are intimately linked. As integrins bind to ECM, they become clustered in the plane of the cell membrane and associate with a cytoskeletal and signaling complex that promotes the assembly of actin filaments (the 64 integrin associates with keratin filaments through the uniquely large 4 cytodomain). The reorganization of actin filaments into larger stress fibers, in turn, causes more integrin clustering, thus enhancing the matrix binding and organization by integrins in a positive feedback system. As a result, ECM proteins, integrins, and cytoskeletal proteins assemble into aggregates on each side of the membrane. Well developed aggregates can be detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and are known as focal adhesions and ECM contacts. In this manner, integrins serve as integrators of the ECM and cytoskeleton, the property for which integrins are named.
Several integrins have been found to associate laterally with the oligomeric membrane protein caveolin-1, at least in primary cells. Although the biochemical nature of this interaction is not known, inhibiting caveolin expression suppresses the formation of focal adhesions and integrin signaling. Because of its ability to associate into oligomers, caveolin-1 may help integrins to cluster on the plasma membrane. Integrin associated structural and signaling proteins also aggregate with the integrins, and signaling is facilitated by the resulting high local concentrations of these proteins.
FA is a dynamic ligation-anchored cell-link which is anchored to the extracellular matrix through integrin. The Cytoplasmic end of integrin link with actin filament through other proteins.
Focal Adhesion Kinase-Mediated Events Focal adhesions are dynamic structures that can be rapidly disassembled if the adhesion cell is stimulated to move or enter mitosis. The plasma membrane in the region of a focal adhesion contains large clusters of integrins. The cytoplasmic domains of the integrin are connected by various adaptors to actin filaments of the cytoskeleton.
The binding of an extracellular ligand, such as fibronection or laminin, can activate protein kinases, such as FAK, that can transmit signals throughout the cell, including the cell nucleus.
Focal adhesion kinase is a important signaling transduction molecule, which join many important signaling pathway and a variety of behavior regulation of cell and molecular biology. It is a unique protein tyrosine kinase of approximately 125 kDa; it contains a central consensus kinase domain, a C-terminal domain having two proline-rich sequence, and a region required for focal adhesion targeting termed the FAT sequence.
A lot of evidence lends its weight to a critical role for FAK in integrin-mediated signaling. First, immunofluorescent staining shows that FAK co localizes with proteins such as talin and tensin in focal adhesion sites of fibroblasts. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate that FAK undergoes enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation upon adhesion to fibronectin or antibody-mediated integrin clustering.
Besides integrin-mediated events, FAK tyrosine phosphorylation is increased through a variety of non-integrin cell surface receptors including growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors.
Activation of tyrosine kinases is a key proximal event for integrin-mediated signal transduction.
Cell adhesion receptors and the control of cell cycle
Cell adhesion impact the regulatory elements of cell cycle .Cell adhesion regulate the transfer of cell cycle information . 3. Adhesion disorders result in cell cycle out of control .
1.1 cell adhesion can induce the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA Someone detect the levels of cyclin D1 Mrna in adhesion state and suspended state,and find that the adhesion state is three to five times higher than the suspended state. late G1 cell cant express in the suspension state but express positive in the adhesion state.
In order to study relation of cyclin D1 and Rb phosphorylated from G1 to S phase, Biologists take the retrovirus transfected NIH - 3T3 cells with cyclin D1 gene to express cyclin D1 sustained. Even leaving the transfection of NIH - 3T3 cells under suspension state, forced expressive cyclin D1 can keep phosphorylation of Rb and overcome the G1 to S phase retardarce caused by the loss of adhesion. the expression of adhesion dependence cyclin D1 can induce continued activity of extracellar signal-regulated kinase, but growth factor only induce ERK activity moment.
1.2 cell adhesion can activate the activity of cyclin E-CDK2 Under the state of Suspended, the activity of cyclin E-CDK2 kinase is Significantly lower than the state of adhesion. The effects can not be interpreted by cyclin E or complex changes because the expressions of cyclin E and CDK2 is independent adhesion, but combination with CKI: P21 and P27 are affected by adhesion. Western blot shows that under the state of suspended ,P21, P27 are three times and two times higher than adhesion. Therefore, the activity of cyclin-dependent adhesion E-CDK2 is regulated through the realization of P21 and P27 .
1.3 the expression of cyclin mRNA depend cell adhesion Under the state of suspended, NRK, NIH - 3T3 and embryonic fibroblast cells cant express cyclin A, so the cyclin A of S phase also need cell adhesion to express. In normal cells, the expression of cyclin A begins after the expression of cyclin D, E and CDK, mRNA and protein of cyclin A begin to appear in late G1. Cyclin A gene promoter contains the regulation of cell cycle (E2F binding sites) and its expression phosphorylate Rb, release E2F, and induct E2F gene transcription .
2. cell adhesion regulate the transfer of cell cycle information When the cell adhesion links with ECM, integrin clustering gather to join the ECM with cell cytoskeletal proteins , phosphorylate FAK, and produce a series of regulatory protein about SH2 region, e.g. Paxillin, Crk, Grb-2 etc. Grb-2 and Crk can activate the pathway of mitogen-activated protein kinase, and then transcript and translate cyclin D1 mRNA .
3. adhesion disorders result in cell cycle out of control Epidermal cell needs to adhere to ECM to survive. Once break away the ECM, it will apoptosis. Frisch names this apoptosis Anoikis (homeless). The cell which phosphorylated sustained by FAK is the key of adhesion to inhibit apoptosis. Tumor-derived growth of cells perform Non-growth factor and adhesion dependence.
The protein which Cancer gene encoded is one of normal cell growth control pathways, but its over-expression or mutation lead the pathway irreversible activation. These proteins which tumor gene encoded activate the pathway of Integrin-mediated and transform the cell to adhesion-independent, such as Ibc, dbl. The down regulation of Drs (one of tumor suppressor genes) connect with Tumor-derived independent adhesion, and result in the abnormal expression of cyclin A.