[ACS Symposium Series] Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Composites Volume 585 || Hybrid Organic—Inorganic Materials

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<ul><li><p>Chapter 17 </p><p>Hybrid OrganicInorganic Materials The SolGel Approach </p><p>J. D. Mackenzie </p><p>Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1595 </p><p>Many crystalline and non-crystalline ceramic oxides have now been prepared via the sol-gel method. The most recent exploitation of the Sol-Gel method is the preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials which can be broadly divided into three types. In Type 1, the porous oxide gel is impregnated with organics to form a nanocomposite. In Type 2, an organic is added to the liquid sol-gel solution as a mixture. After gelation, the organic is trapped in the porous oxide. In Type 3, the organic reacts with the precursors of the sol-gel liquid solution such that after gelation, it is chemically bonded to the inorganic oxide. The properties and structures of these new materials are reviewed in this Chapter. </p><p>Crystalline ceramic oxides and oxide glasses are commonly made by reacting raw materials at temperatures above 1000C. High temperature reactions have many disadvantages including losses from volatilization, undesirable reactions with containers and stresses associated with shrinkage during the cooling of the product. In the past decade, the sol-gel process has generated a great deal of interest as a potentially viable low temperature technique for the preparation of crystalline and glassy oxides (1,3). This process involves room temperature reactions of metal-organic precursors (commonly, metal alkoxides) in liquid solutions to form amorphous porous gels. The gels are then dried and heat-treated to give crystalline or glassy oxide. A most common example is the use of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to give silica glass. Fully dense silica glass of excellent optical properties can be made at temperatures around 1 0 0 0 whereas the melting approach would necessitate temperatures in excess of 2000C. The sol-gel method further permits the formation of very homogeneous ceramics because of the use of liquid solutions. It is particularly suited for the fabrication of thin films. One serious disadvantage of the sol-gel method is that the porous gel is mechanically </p><p>0097-6156/95/0585-0226$12.00/0 1995 American Chemical Society </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by U</p><p>NIV</p><p> OF </p><p>SYD</p><p>NEY</p><p> on </p><p>May</p><p> 12,</p><p> 201</p><p>3 | ht</p><p>tp://p</p><p>ubs.ac</p><p>s.org </p><p> Pu</p><p>blic</p><p>atio</p><p>n D</p><p>ate:</p><p> Mar</p><p>ch 2</p><p>1, 1</p><p>995 </p><p>| doi: 1</p><p>0.1021</p><p>/bk-19</p><p>95-058</p><p>5.ch01</p><p>7</p><p>In Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Composites; Mark, J., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1995. </p></li><li><p>17. MACKENZIE Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Materials: Sol-Gel Approach 111 </p><p>very weak and shrinkages during drying and high temperature heat-treatment often lead to brittle fracture. The presence of non-bridging organic groups in the metal-organic precursors, for instance C 2 H 5 -Si(OEt)3 to replace TEOS would suggest that brittle fracture may be minimized since the Si has only three interconnecting Si-0 bonds rather than four. The dried gel would now contain one C2H5-group and thus an "organically modified silicate" (Ormosil) is formed. </p><p>The most recent exploitation of the sol-gel method is the preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials which can be conveniently divided into three types. The Ormosil mentioned above contains a chemical bond between the organic (C2H5) and the inorganic (S1O2) components A chemical bond can also be formed between an organic such as a long chain polymer and oxide groups in the starting liquid solutions. These form one family of organic inorganic hybrids. Another type of hybrids can be made by dissolving or dispersing organics in a sol-gel liquid solution. On gelation, the organic is trapped in the porous inorganic amorphous oxide. A third type involves the impregnation of an organic into the continuous ultrafine pores of a solid oxide gel to form a nanocomposite. The processing of these three types of organic-inorganic hybrid materials is represented in Figure 1. The main features of the preparation of these materials, their structures and microstructures and their properties are summarized in this review. </p><p>Type I - Impregnated Hybrids. Oxide gels are usually highly porous prior to drying and the pores are interconnecting with diameters ranging from a few angstroms to few thousand angstroms depending on the chemistry and the processing conditions. After drying and heat-treatment to temperatures above 500C, the porous gel is now mechanically strong enough for further treatment. S1O2 gel has been the most widely studied material of this class. Organic monomers of various types have been impregnated into S1O2 gels and polymerized in situ to give transparent nanocomposites (4,5). Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) - S1O2 nanocomposites containing a wide range of PMMA were found to have properties obeying ideal mixture rules. Thus, transparent solids which are lighter than soda-lime silicate glass but much harder and stronger than PMMA can be fabricated. Table I gives a comparison between the mechanical properties of common inorganic glasses, PMMA and a PMMA-S1O2 nanocomposite. Organic dyes, for instance, can also be dissolved in the monomer prior to polymerization. In the case of PMMA, its refractive index is almost identical to that of S1O2 and in addition, because impregnation can be almost 100% complete, a highly transparent nanocomposite can be formed. More recently, L.L. Hench and coworkers were able to prepare S1O2 gel with very narrow pore size distributions in the diameter range of 14 to 90. Various organic dyes such as Rhodamine 6 G and 4PyPO-MePTS were impregnated into the pores to give optically active materials for laser applications (6,7). Such </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by U</p><p>NIV</p><p> OF </p><p>SYD</p><p>NEY</p><p> on </p><p>May</p><p> 12,</p><p> 201</p><p>3 | ht</p><p>tp://p</p><p>ubs.ac</p><p>s.org </p><p> Pu</p><p>blic</p><p>atio</p><p>n D</p><p>ate:</p><p> Mar</p><p>ch 2</p><p>1, 1</p><p>995 </p><p>| doi: 1</p><p>0.1021</p><p>/bk-19</p><p>95-058</p><p>5.ch01</p><p>7</p><p>In Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Composites; Mark, J., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1995. </p></li><li><p>228 HYBRID ORGANIC-INORGANIC COMPOSITES </p><p>Iff. ORGANIC </p><p>SOL-GEL LIQUID </p><p>SOLUTION </p><p>PORES </p><p> * ORGANIC INORGANIC </p><p> gMIXTURE </p><p>ORGANIC TRAPPED IN </p><p>OXIDE MATRIX </p><p>III. OXIDE -</p><p>ALKOXIDE-POLYMER MIXTURE </p><p>OXIDE-POLYMER BONDS </p><p>"ORMOSIL" </p><p>Figure 1. Three general types of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials. </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by U</p><p>NIV</p><p> OF </p><p>SYD</p><p>NEY</p><p> on </p><p>May</p><p> 12,</p><p> 201</p><p>3 | ht</p><p>tp://p</p><p>ubs.ac</p><p>s.org </p><p> Pu</p><p>blic</p><p>atio</p><p>n D</p><p>ate:</p><p> Mar</p><p>ch 2</p><p>1, 1</p><p>995 </p><p>| doi: 1</p><p>0.1021</p><p>/bk-19</p><p>95-058</p><p>5.ch01</p><p>7</p><p>In Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Composites; Mark, J., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1995. </p></li><li><p>17. MACKENZIE Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Materials: Sol-Gel Approach 229 </p><p>dye-SiC&gt;2 composites have been shown to perform better than the conventional liquid dye systems in dye lasers (8,9). S1O2 gels have been fabricated into microspheres with diameters ranging from 20 to 70 and impregnated with dyes (10). The use of such microspheres as components for optical display panels were demonstrated and their applications as sensors, slow release media for medicines, fragrances and other chemicals suggested (10). It is entirely feasible that polycrystalline porous oxides such as T1O2 and ZrC&gt;2 can be used as the host for organic impregnates and thus widening the opportunities for further exploitation of these organic-inorganic hybrids. </p><p>It is obvious that opportunities abound for the use of these Type I nanocomposites for many future applications. For example, the pores need not be completely filled with the organics with the first impregnation but instead, can be narrowed by a coating of the organic. Thereafter, a second impregnation with another organic can be made. Another possibility is the incorporation of optically active transition metal ions into the oxide phase to create the possibility of interactions between these ions and an impregnated organic dye. </p><p>Type II - Entrapped Organics Hybrids. In 1984, Avnir, Levy and Reisfeld first stirred organic dyes into a S1O2 sol-gel solution and prepared a gel containing Rhodamine 6G and suggested the use of such materials as dye lasers (11). Since that time, many organic materials have been impregnated into primarily S1O2 gel matrices. A partial list of such impregnates is shown in Table II. There is a great deal of developmental activity at present to exploit the applications of these nanocomposites. The hard colored coatings using organic pigments instead of dye molecules dispersed in a S1O2 gel is apparently a successful commercial development in high definition television. A highly promising version of a chemical sensor is shown in Figure 2. The tip of a common optical fiber is stripped of the oxide cladding and replaced by a thin coating of a dye-oxide sensor fabricated via sol-gel liquid solution. The evanescent wave is modified when the sensor is exposed to gases to which the dye is sensitive. Small sensors only three inches in length and reasonable in cost have apparently been developed in Ireland (B.D. MacCraith, l. ai-, J- Sol-Gel; Sci and Tech., in press) for the detection of a variety of gases. The liquid crystal device developed by Levy et. aL (15) also holds promise. In these devices, the liquid crystal droplets are dispersed in a suitable oxide gel matrix sandwiched between two glass slides with transparent indium-tin oxide electrodes. In the absence of an electric field, the liquid crystal droplets would scatter light. However, a field can align the liquid crystals in the droplet and gives transparency. In many publications on these Type II hybrid materials, some critical questions can be raised and currently answers are absent. The scientific knowledge of entrapped organics in an inorganic gel matrix is still in its infancy. For instance, the S1O2 gel formed </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by U</p><p>NIV</p><p> OF </p><p>SYD</p><p>NEY</p><p> on </p><p>May</p><p> 12,</p><p> 201</p><p>3 | ht</p><p>tp://p</p><p>ubs.ac</p><p>s.org </p><p> Pu</p><p>blic</p><p>atio</p><p>n D</p><p>ate:</p><p> Mar</p><p>ch 2</p><p>1, 1</p><p>995 </p><p>| doi: 1</p><p>0.1021</p><p>/bk-19</p><p>95-058</p><p>5.ch01</p><p>7</p><p>In Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Composites; Mark, J., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1995. </p></li><li><p>230 HYBRID ORGANIC-INORGANIC COMPOSITES </p><p>Table I. Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Various Transparent Solids (5) </p><p>Materials Density Relative Abrasion Vickers Hardness Modulus of g/cc (10-3 mm3/Cycle) (kg/mm )^ Rupture (kpsi) </p><p>Si02 glass </p><p>2.20 12 700 15,500 </p><p>Soda-lime glass </p><p>2.50 23 450 12,000 </p><p>Si02-33% PMMA </p><p>1.85 35 220 12,000 </p><p>PMMA 1.20 350 30 8,000 </p><p>Table II. Examples of Entrapped Organics in Oxides Entrapped Organics Potential Reference </p><p>Applications Rhodamine 6G Dye laser Avnir, Levy and Dye laser </p><p>Reisfeld ( 7 7) Quinizarin Optical data Tani, Namikawa, Arai </p><p>storage and Makishima (12) Poly-pophenylene Third Order NLO Prasad (13) vinylene o-phenanthrolin Chemical sensors Zusman, Rottman, o-phenanthrolin </p><p>Ottolenghi and Avnir (14) </p><p>Liquid crystals Display systems Levy, Pena, Serma Liquid crystals andOton (15) </p><p>Spiropyrane Photochromies Levy, Einhorn and Spiropyrane Avnir (16) </p><p>Phenoxazinium Hard colored Nakazumi and coatings Amano (17) </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by U</p><p>NIV</p><p> OF </p><p>SYD</p><p>NEY</p><p> on </p><p>May</p><p> 12,</p><p> 201</p><p>3 | ht</p><p>tp://p</p><p>ubs.ac</p><p>s.org </p><p> Pu</p><p>blic</p><p>atio</p><p>n D</p><p>ate:</p><p> Mar</p><p>ch 2</p><p>1, 1</p><p>995 </p><p>| doi: 1</p><p>0.1021</p><p>/bk-19</p><p>95-058</p><p>5.ch01</p><p>7</p><p>In Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Composites; Mark, J., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1995. </p></li><li><p>17. MACKENZIE Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Materials: Sol-Gel Approach 231 </p><p>even after heat-treatment to 200C, still contain OH groups and probably unreacted alkoxides. The gel is very porous and mechanically very weak. The porosity and its related low mechanical strength can be partially mitigated by filling the pores with polymers or gel solutions as described above. However, there is still little knowledge at present regarding the locations of the entrapped organics and their interactions with the oxide matrix. For instance, the organics can be entirely surrounded by the oxide, partially surrounded or exposed in the pore. Figure 3 shows where a relatively large organic molecule such as EDTA can be trapped within a porous S1O2 gel. EDTA is known to form chelates with heavy metal ions and hence the composite can be potentially useful as an ultrafilter and/or sensor. However, its usefulness must be dependent on where and how the EDTA is trapped and at present, such information is lacking. Another uncertainly is whether a dispersed organic will have any effects on the gelation mechanism and hence on the microstructure of the oxide gel itself. Thus, a great deal more scientific studies must still be made before one can have confidence of the proposed applications of these Type II hybrid materials. </p><p>Type III - Chemically Bonded Organic - Inorganic Hybrids. In the Introduction section, it has been mentioned that organic groups such as C2H5 can be incorporated in a S1O2 gel via the starting precursor material. The porous gel so formed cannot be heat-treated as for a pure oxide gel because the organic group would decompose. However, if a high temperature stable gel is not required or if the organic group can be subsequently removed at high temperatures without causing brittle fracture, then these gels containing organics can be highly desirable during drying. Figure 4(a) depicts a purely inorganic oxide gel and Figure 4(b) that of a Type III hybrid. Since network connectivity terminates at every R group, the ability of this hybrid to relieve stresses during shrinkage in drying is improved and fracture tendencies are minimized. </p><p>It is also possible to induce the formation of chemical bonds between the inorganic components in a gel and organic components during the gelation process. The most common example is the reaction between TEOS and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS): </p><p>1 </p><p>Ch- o O </p><p>me I I </p><p>-Si OSi I I </p><p>me me </p><p>me , 1 </p><p>- O - S i </p><p> ' </p><p>Depending on the ratio of TEOS to PDMS, very hard "Ormosils" (organically modified silicates) or rubbery solids can be prepared (18,19). </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by U</p><p>NIV</p><p> OF </p><p>SYD</p><p>NEY</p><p> on </p><p>May</p><p> 12,</p><p> 201</p><p>3 | ht</p><p>tp://p</p><p>ubs.ac</p><p>s.org </p><p> Pu</p><p>blic</p><p>atio</p><p>n D</p><p>ate:</p><p> Mar</p><p>ch 2</p><p>1, 1</p><p>995 </p><p>| doi: 1</p><p>0.1021</p><p>/bk-19</p><p>95-058</p><p>5.ch01</p><p>7</p><p>In Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Composites; Mark, J., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1995. </p></li><li><p>232 HYBRID ORGANIC-INORGANIC COMPOSITES </p><p>Figure 3. Various positions where an EDTA molecule can be trapped in an oxide gel. The pore size is 30A. </p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by U</p><p>NIV</p><p> OF </p><p>SYD</p><p>NEY</p><p> on </p><p>May</p><p> 12,</p><p> 201</p><p>3 | ht</p><p>tp://p</p><p>ubs.ac</p><p>s.org </p><p> Pu</p><p>blic</p><p>atio</p><p>n D</p><p>ate:</p><p> Mar</p><p>ch 2</p><p>1, 1</p><p>995 </p><p>| doi: 1</p><p>0.1021</p><p>/bk-19</p><p>95-058</p><p>5.ch01</p><p>7</p><p>In Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Composites; Mark, J., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1995. </p></li><li><p>17. MACKENZIE Hybrid OrganicInorganic Materials: SolGel Approach 233 </p><p>! I I /*\ </p><p>() I I </p><p>' V s&gt;' V /&gt;' V /&gt;' I </p><p> I / \ </p><p>I </p><p>! </p><p> I </p><p> I </p><p> I I </p><p> . I </p><p> 1 </p><p>S i ' </p><p> I </p><p>S i ' I </p><p>(b) </p><p>I I </p><p> M M </p><p>0 0 0 I I I </p><p>M M M </p><p>/ \ s - </p><p>I </p><p>M I </p><p>. R - M v </p><p>I M </p><p>/ S </p><p>I </p><p>A </p><p>M </p><p>" I </p><p> I . </p><p>I I </p><p>Figure 4a. and b. Presence of organic (R) group can minimize...</p></li></ul>

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