Aci Structural Journal Mar.-apr. 2015 v. 112 No. 02

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ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL March-April 2015, V. 112, No. 2a journal of the american concrete institutean international technical society

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<ul><li><p>V. 112, NO. 2MARCH-APRIL 2015</p><p>ACISTRUCTURAL</p><p>J O U R N A L</p><p>A J O U R N A L O F T H E A M E R I C A N C O N C R E T E I N S T I T U T E</p></li><li><p>ACI Structural Journal/March-April 2015 121</p><p>Discussion is welcomed for all materials published in this issue and will appear ten months from this journals date if the discussion is received within four months of the papers print publication. Discussion of material received after specified dates will be considered individually for publication or private response. ACI Standards published in ACI Journals for public comment have discussion due dates printed with the Standard.Annual index published online at http://concrete.org/Publications/ACIStructuralJournal.ACI Structural JournalCopyright 2015 American Concrete Institute. Printed in the United States of America.The ACI Structural Journal (ISSN 0889-3241) is published bimonthly by the American Concrete Institute. Publica-tion office: 38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331. Periodicals postage paid at Farmington, MI, and at additional mailing offices. Subscription rates: $166 per year (U.S. and possessions), $175 (elsewhere), payable in advance. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: ACI Structural Journal, 38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331.</p><p>Canadian GST: R 1226213149.Direct correspondence to 38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331. Telephone: +1.248.848.3700. Fac-simile (FAX): +1.248.848.3701. Website: http://www.concrete.org.</p><p> CONTENTSBoard of Direction</p><p>PresidentWilliam E. Rushing Jr.</p><p>Vice PresidentsSharon L. WoodMichael J. Schneider</p><p>DirectorsRoger J. BeckerDean A. BrowningJeffrey W. ColemanAlejandro Durn-HerreraRobert J. FroschAugusto H. HolmbergCary S. KopczynskiSteven H. KosmatkaKevin A. MacDonaldFred MeyerMichael M. SprinkelDavid M. Suchorski</p><p>Past President Board MembersAnne M. EllisJames K. WightKenneth C. Hover</p><p>Executive Vice PresidentRon Burg</p><p>Technical Activities CommitteeRonald Janowiak, ChairDaniel W. Falconer, Staff LiaisonJoAnn P. BrowningCatherine E. FrenchFred R. GoodwinTrey HamiltonNeven Krstulovic-OparaKimberly KurtisKevin A. MacDonaldJan OlekMichael StenkoPericles C. StivarosAndrew W. TaylorEldon G. Tipping</p><p>StaffExecutive Vice PresidentRon Burg</p><p>EngineeringManaging DirectorDaniel W. FalconerManaging EditorKhaled NahlawiStaff EngineersMatthew R. SenecalGregory M. ZeislerJerzy Z. ZemajtisPublishing ServicesManagerBarry M. BerginEditorsCarl R. BischofTiesha ElamKaitlyn HinmanKelli R. Slayden</p><p>Editorial AssistantAngela R. Matthews</p><p>ACI StruCturAl JournAl</p><p>MArCh-AprIl 2015, V. 112, no. 2a journal of the american concrete institutean international technical society</p><p>123 Evaluation of Column Load for Generally Uniform Grid-Reinforced Pile Cap Failing in Punching, by Honglei Guo</p><p>135 Design Implications of Large-Scale Shake-Table Test on Four-Story Reinforced Concrete Building, by T. Nagae, W. M. Ghannoum, J. Kwon, K. Tahara, K. Fukuyama, T. Matsumori, H. Shiohara, T. Kabeyasawa, S. Kono, M. Nishiyama, R. Sause, J. W. Wallace, and J. P. Moehle</p><p>147 Inverted-T Beams: Experiments and Strut-and-Tie Modeling, by N. L. Varney, E. Fernndez-Gmez, D. B. Garber, W. M. Ghannoum, and O. Bayrak</p><p>157 Energy-Based Hysteresis Model for Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Connections, by Tae-Sung Eom, Hyeon-Jong Hwang, and Hong-Gun Park</p><p>167 Ductility Enhancement in Beam-Column Connections Using Hybrid Fiber-Reinforced Concrete, by Dhaval Kheni, Richard H. Scott, S. K. Deb, and Anjan Dutta</p><p>179 Behavior and Simplified Modeling of Mechanical Reinforcing Bar Splices, by Zachary B. Haber, M. Saiid Saiidi, and David H. Sanders</p><p>189 Bond-Splitting Strength of Reinforced Strain-Hardening Cement Composite Elements with Small Bar Spacing, by Toshiyuki Kanakubo and Hiroshi Hosoya</p><p>199 Wide Beam Shear Behavior with Diverse Types of Reinforcement, by S. E. Mohammadyan-Yasouj, A. K. Marsono, R. Abdullah, and M. Moghadasi</p><p>209 Effect of Axial Compression on Shear Behavior of High-Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns, by Yu-Chen Ou and Dimas P. Kurniawan</p><p>221 Experimental Investigations on Prestressed Concrete Beams with Openings, by Martin Classen and Tobias Dressen</p><p>233 Discussion</p><p> Bond-Slip-Strain Relationship in Transfer Zone of Pretensioned Concrete Elements. Paper by Ho Park and Jae-Yeol Cho</p><p>Contents cont. on next page</p></li><li><p>122 ACI Structural Journal/March-April 2015</p><p>MEETINGS</p><p>Permission is granted by the American Concrete Institute for libraries and other users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) to photocopy any article contained herein for a fee of $3.00 per copy of the article. Payments should be sent directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, 21 Congress Street, Salem, MA 01970. ISSN 0889-3241/98 $3.00. Copying done for other than personal or internal reference use without the express written permission of the American Concrete Institute is prohibited. Requests for special permission or bulk copying should be addressed to the Managing Editor, ACI Structural Journal, American Concrete Institute.The Institute is not responsible for statements or opinions expressed in its publications. Institute publications are not able to, nor intend to, supplant individual training, responsibility, or judgment of the user, or the supplier, of the information presented.Papers appearing in the ACI Structural Journal are reviewed according to the Institutes Publication Policy by individuals expert in the subject area of the papers.</p><p>Contributions to ACI Structural Journal</p><p>The ACI Structural Journal is an open forum on concrete technology and papers related to this field are always welcome. All material submitted for possible publi-cation must meet the requirements of the American Concrete Institute Publi-cation Policy and Author Guidelines and Submission Procedures. Prospective authors should request a copy of the Policy and Guidelines from ACI or visit ACIs website at www.concrete.org prior to submitting contributions.</p><p>Papers reporting research must include a statement indicating the significance of the research.</p><p>The Institute reserves the right to return, without review, contributions not meeting the requirements of the Publication Policy.</p><p>All materials conforming to the Policy requirements will be reviewed for editorial quality and technical content, and every effort will be made to put all acceptable papers into the information channel. However, potentially good papers may be returned to authors when it is not possible to publish them in a reasonable time.</p><p>DiscussionAll technical material appearing in the </p><p>ACI Structural Journal may be discussed. If the deadline indicated on the contents page is observed, discussion can appear in the designated issue. Discussion should be complete and ready for publication, including finished, reproducible illustra-tions. Discussion must be confined to the scope of the paper and meet the ACI Publi-cation Policy.</p><p>Follow the style of the current issue. Be brief1800 words of double spaced, typewritten copy, including illustrations and tables, is maximum. Count illustrations and tables as 300 words each and submit them on individual sheets. As an approxi-mation, 1 page of text is about 300 words. Submit one original typescript on 8-1/2 x 11 plain white paper, use 1 in. margins, and include two good quality copies of the entire discussion. References should be complete. Do not repeat references cited in original paper; cite them by original number. Closures responding to a single discussion should not exceed 1800-word equivalents in length, and to multiple discussions, approximately one half of the combined lengths of all discussions. Closures are published together with the discussions.</p><p>Discuss the paper, not some new or outside work on the same subject. Use references wherever possible instead of repeating available information.</p><p>Discussion offered for publication should offer some benefit to the general reader. Discussion which does not meet this requirement will be returned or referred to the author for private reply.</p><p>Send manuscripts to:http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/aci</p><p>Send discussions to:Journals.Manuscripts@concrete.org</p><p>THE ACI CONCRETE CONVENTION AND EXPOSITION: FUTURE DATES2015April 12-16, Marriott &amp; Kansas City Convention Center, Kansas City, MO2015November 8-12, Sheraton Denver, Denver, CO2016April 17-21, Hyatt &amp; Wisconsin Center, Milwaukee, WI</p><p>For additional information, contact:Event Services, ACI38800 Country Club Drive, Farmington Hills, MI 48331Telephone: +1.248.848.3795e-mail: conventions@concrete.org</p><p>ON COVER: 112-S12, p. 136, Fig. 2Reinforced concrete (left) and prestressed concrete (right) specimens on the E-Defense shake table.</p><p> Fire Protection for Beams with Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Flexural Strength-ening Systems. Paper by Nabil Grace and Mena Bebawy</p><p> Analysis and Prediction of Transfer Length in Pretensioned, Prestressed Concrete Members. Paper by Byung Hwan Oh, Si N. Lim, Myung K. Lee, and Sung W. Yoo</p><p> Flexural Testing of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Recycled Concrete Aggregates. Paper by Thomas H.-K. Kang, Woosuk Kim, Yoon-Keun Kwak, and Sung-Gul Hong</p><p>241 Reviewers in 2014</p><p>MARCH/APRIL30-2Concrete Sawing &amp; Drilling Association Convention and Tech Fair, St. Petersburg, FL, www.csda.org/events/event_details.asp?id=444478&amp;group</p><p>APRIL</p><p>13-15BEST Conference Building Enclosure Science &amp; Technology, Kansas City, MO, www.nibs.org/?page=best</p><p>26-292015 Post-Tensioning Institute Convention, Houston, TX, www.post-tensioning.org/page/pti-convention</p><p>26-3057th Annual IEEE-IAS/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference, Toronto, ON, Canada, www.cementconference.org</p><p>MAY</p><p>3-7International Cement Microscopy Association Annual Conference, Seattle, WA, www.cemmicro.org</p><p>4-72015 World of Coal Ash Conference, Nashville, TN, www.worldofcoalash.org</p><p>11-132015 International Concrete Sustainability Conference, Miami, FL, www.concretesustainabilityconference.org</p><p>14-16The American Institute of Architects Convention, Atlanta, GA, http://convention.aia.org/event/homepage.aspx</p><p>14-17The Masonry Society 2015 Spring Meetings, Denver, CO, http://www.masonrysociety.org/index.cfm?showincenter=http%3A//www.masonrysociety.org/html/calendar/index.htm</p><p>17-2012th North American Masonry Conference, Denver, CO, www.masonrysociety.org/NAMC/index.html</p><p>24-26 - Fifth International Symposium on Nanotechnology in Construction, Chicago, IL, www.nicom5.org</p><p>JUNE1-37th RILEM Conference on High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites, Stuttgart, Germany, www.rilem.org/gene/main.php?base=600040#next_614</p></li><li><p>123ACI Structural Journal/March-April 2015</p><p>ACI STRUCTURAL JOURNAL TECHNICAL PAPER</p><p>Currently, the punching shear resistance of pile caps is frequently evaluated empirically, and although the strut-and-tie model (STM) may be used to calculate the issue, the two weaknesses of STMconservative nature and difficult configurationhinder its rational solution. To attempt to solve these issues, this paper presents a generalized method of spatial STMs to evaluate punching shear resistance of general pile caps with uniform grid reinforcement (TPM). Based on results of the spatial strut-and-tie bearing mech-anism of pile cap punching failure, three-dimensional (3-D) rather than two-dimensional (2-D) strut strength is derived. During this process, nonlinear finite element analysis in conjunction with the derivation of a gradual least-square method for multiple variables is adopted. TPM is verified by 98 specimens in the literature, whose parameters (reinforcement ratio of tension tie, punching-span ratio, concrete strength, pile number, and pile arrangement) vary, respec-tively; the comparisons with the other four methods are made. It is indicated that TPM is extensively applicable to the evaluation of the punching shear resistance of general pile caps with uniform grid reinforcement.</p><p>Keywords: building code; pile cap; punching shear resistance; strut-and-tie model (STM).</p><p>INTRODUCTIONA pile cap is the load-transfer story between the super-</p><p>structure and pile, while the evaluation of its punching shear resistance is an important basis for determining its thickness and arrangement of reinforcement.</p><p>Generally speaking, the evaluation of punching shear resistance of a pile cap can be classified into two types according to the theory of plasticity:</p><p>Type 1The collapse mechanism is assumed so that the upper-bound solution to punching shear resistance is obtained using the theory of plasticity, called the upper-bound method for short. This method is adopted in the critical section stress method of the ACI 318-08 code (ACI CSM)1 and the Chinese JGJ94-94 code.2 (Although an empirical method in appearance, ACI CSM is theoretically an upper-bound method in essence).</p><p>Of the aforementioned, as shown in the Appendix* of the paper, ACI CSM,1 (also, the details of JGJ94-94, ACI STM, CRSI,3 and TPM at the back being given in the Appendix of the paper) similar to the calculating method used for punching shear resistance of slab in the ACI 318-08 code, is divided into two steps:</p><p>1. For simplicity of evaluation, the critical sections perpendicular to the plane of the pile cap are used instead </p><p>*The Appendix is available at www.concrete.org/publications in PDF format, appended to the online version of the published paper. It is also available in hard copy from ACI headquarters for a fee equal to the cost of reproduction plus handling at the time of the request.</p><p>of the oblique sections of the punching cone, and the perim-eter of the critical sections is kept minimum but no closer to the column edge than d/2 (the definition of d being given in Eq. (1) and Fig. 4); and</p><p>2. Take the minimum of the three kinds of punching shear resistance in these sections as the ultimate. </p><p>Whereas the method in JGJ94-94 code2 is divided into three steps: 1) take the link line between the column side and the nearest pile side to form the punching cone; 2) modify the inclination of the punching cone to ensure it to vary from 45 to 78.7 degrees; and 3) in the end, use a punching coef-ficient containing the punching-span ratio to correct the punching shear resistance (the definition of being given in Eq. (1)).</p><p>Type 2The rational stress field is assumed according to the load-transfer route so that the lower-bound solution to punching shear resistance is obtained, called the lower-bound method for short. As far as the practical evaluation of the reinforced concrete is concerned, it has often been the best choice for this method to have the structure likened to a certain kind of structure or a combination of certain struc-tures whose bearing mechanism is well known.</p><p>In technical codes, the text and Appendix A of ACI 318-08,1 the CRSI handbook,3 CAN/CSA A23.3-04,4 BSEN 1992-1-1:2004,5 and AS 3600-20016 either adopt or contain this method.</p><p>Of the aforementioned, when the center of any one pile is at or within twice the distance between the top of the pile cap and the top of the pile, Section 15.5 in ACI 318-081 states that punching of the pile cap can be likened t...</p></li></ul>