abnormal psychology & therapy chapters 16 & 17

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Abnormal Psychology & Therapy Chapters 16 & 17. Part I: Psychological Disorders. Defining Psychological Disorders. Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Abnormal Psychology & Therapy Chapters 16 & 17

Abnormal Psychology & TherapyChapters 16 & 17

Part I: Psychological Disorders

Defining Psychological DisordersMental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions.When behavior is unjustifiable (not rational), maladaptive, atypical (violates the norm), and disturbing psychiatrists and psychologists label it as disordered.

Remember: U-MAD3OBJECTIVE 1| Identify criteria for judging whether behavior is psychologically disordered.Medical PerspectivePhilippe Pinel (1745-1826) from France, insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind. He suggested humane treatment.

Lunatic Ball4Biopsychosocial Perspective

Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.5Classifying Psychological DisordersThe American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders.The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision, 2000), describes 400 psychological disorders compared to the 60 identified in the 1950s.


6OBJECTIVE 3| Describe the goals and content of the DSM-IV.Goals of DSMDescribe (400) disorders.Determine how prevalent the disorder is.Disorders outlined by DSM-IV are reliable. Therefore, diagnoses by different professionals are similar. Also, insurance companies usually require a firm diagnosis to cover health care costs. Others criticize DSM-IV for classifying almost anything as a disorder/syndrome.7Anxiety DisordersFeelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety that cause distress or cause maladaptive behaviors to reduce the levels of stress.Generalized anxiety disorders (GAD)PhobiasPanic disordersObsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD)Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) 8OBJECTIVE 5| Define anxiety disorder, and explain how this condition differs from normal feelings of stress, tension, or uneasiness.Generalized Anxiety Disorder (G.A.D)Disorder characterized by persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension (worrying).2.Autonomic arousal.Inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings.

Must have at least three of the following:- Restlessness- Feeling on edge- Difficulty concentrating/mind going blank- Irritability- Muscle Tension- Sleep Disturbance

9OBJECTIVE 6| Contrast the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.Panic Attack DisorderMinute-long episodes of intense dread which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations.Anxiety is a major component of panic attack disorder, making people avoid situations that cause it. Panic Attack disorder and agoraphobia (fear of open/public places) usually go together.10PhobiasPhobias are marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior.


Agoraphobia fear of open places (only phobia listed in the DSM)

11OBJECTIVE 7| Explain how a phobia differs from fears we all experience.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (O.C. D.)Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges/behaviors (compulsions) to engage in senseless rituals that cause distress.

12OBJECTIVE 8| Describe the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder.Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (P.T.S. D.)Often caused by severely threatening uncontrollable events. Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder:Haunting memories (flashbacks)

2.Nightmares3.Social withdrawal (uncommon anger or substance abuse)4.Jumpy anxiety5.Sleep problems (insomnia)

13OBJECTIVE 9| Describe the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and discuss survivor resiliency.

Explaining Anxiety DisordersFreud suggested that we repress our painful and intolerable ideas, feelings, and thoughts, resulting in anxiety.

15OBJECTIVE 10| Discuss the contributions of the learning and biological perspectives to our understanding of the development of anxiety disorders.The Learning PerspectiveLearning theorists suggest that (classical) conditioning leads to anxiety. This anxiety then becomes associated with other objects or events (stimulus generalization) and is reinforced (operant).

Investigators believe that fear responses can be passed along to others through observational learning (modeling).

16The Biological PerspectiveNatural Selection has led our ancestors to learn to fear snakes, spiders, and other animals. Therefore, fear preserves the species. Perhaps its part of Jungs collective unconscious?Twin studies suggest that our genes may be partly responsible for developing fears and anxiety. Twins are more likely to share phobias.

17The Biological PerspectiveA PET scan of the brain of a person with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). High metabolic activity (red) in the frontal lobe areas are involved with directing attention.

Too little of the neurotransmitter Serotonin can also contribute to anxiety disorders

18Dissociative DisordersUsually nurture-based where conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings..Having a sense of being unreal.2.Being separated from the body.3.Watching yourself as if in a movie.Depersonalization Disorder

19OBJECTIVE 11| Describe the symptoms of dissociative disorders, and explain why some critics are skeptical about dissociative identity disorder.Other Dissociative DisordersDissociative Amnesia amnesia caused by some kind of trauma (not by injury). For example, soldiers in combat.

Dissociative Fugue (flight) Person totally forgets who they are and may develop a completely new identity, personality, etc. in a new place. Like witness protection from yourself!

Dissociative Identity Disorder (D.I.D.)Formerly called Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), it is a disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities (each with its own name, voice, mannerisms, occupations, etc).

Chris Sizemore, the basis for the movie The Three Faces of Eve


21Mood DisordersEmotional extremes of mood disorders come in two principal forms.Major depressive disorderBipolar disorders

22OBJECTIVE 12| Define mood disorders, and contrast major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.Major Depressive DisorderMajor depressive disorder occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and are not caused by drugs or medical conditions.5 of the following: (at least one of which has to be depressed mood or loss of interest/pleasure)

depressed moodloss of interest/pleasureweight lossinsomnia/hypersomnia psychomotor agitation/retardation loss of energy/fatiguefeelings of worthlessness/guilt decreased concentrationsuicidal ideation/thoughts of death.

23Dysthymic DisorderDysthymic disorder lies between a blue mood and major depressive disorder. It is a disorder characterized by mild daily depression lasting two years or more with two or more of the following symptoms:Major DepressiveDisorderBlue MoodDysthymicDisorder

poor appetite/overeatinginsomnia/hypersomniafatigue/low energy low self-esteemdecreased concentration hopelessness

24Bipolar DisorderFormerly called Manic-Depressive Disorder, it is an alternation between depression and mania (highs & lows). Multiple ideasHyperactiveDesire for actionEuphoriaElationManic SymptomsSlowness of thoughtTiredInability to make decisionsWithdrawnGloomyDepressive Symptoms

25Bipolar DisorderMany great writers, poets, and composers suffered from bipolar disorder. During their manic phase creativity surged, but not during their depressed phase.

WhitmanWolfeClemensHemingway26Explaining Mood DisordersSince depression is so prevalent worldwide, investigators want to develop a theory of depression that will suggest ways to treat it. Lewinsohn notes that a theory of depression should explain the following:Behavioral and cognitive changesCommon causes of depressionGender differencesDepressive episodes usually self-terminate.Depression is increasing, especially in the teens27OBJECTIVE 13| Discuss the facts that an acceptable theory of depression must explain.SuicideThe most severe form of behavioral response to depression is suicide. Each year some 1 million people commit suicide worldwide.


Biological Perspective

Genetic Influences: Mood disorders run in families. The rate of depression is higher in identical (50%) than fraternal twins (20%).Linkage analysis and association studies link possible genes and dispositions for depression.30OBJECTIVE 14| Summarize the contribution of the biological perspective to the study of depression, and discuss the link between suicide and depression.Biological PerspectivePost-synapticNeuronPre-synapticNeuronNorepinephrineSerotoninNeurotransmitters: A reduction of norepinephrine and serotonin has been found in depression.

Drugs that alleviate mania reduce norepinephrine.31Biological PerspectivePET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with manic and depressive episodes.

32Social-Cognitive PerspectiveThe social-cognitive perspective suggests that depression arises partly from self-defeating beliefs and negative explanatory styles.

33OBJECTIVE 15| Summarize the contribution of the social-cognitive perspective to the study of depression, and describe the events in the cycle of depression.Depression CycleNegative stressful events.Pessimistic explanatory style.Hopeless depressed state.These hamper the way t