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Post-Harvest Of Grapes USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

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GRAPES IN PAKISTAN

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Post-Harvest Of Grapes

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

Grapes

Botanical Name:- Vitis vinifera Family:- Vitaceae Grape is a non-climacteric fruit grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine, grape seed extracts, raisins, and grape seed oil. Grapes are also used in some kinds of confectionery. There are more than 50 varieties of grapes Rich source of vitamin A.

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Grapes grow in clusters of 6 to 300. Crimson, black, dark blue, yellow, green and pink. Grapes are actually green in color, and are derived from the red grape. Dried grapes are referred as 'raisins' or the local equivalent. Grapes can be eaten or used for making jam, juice, jelly, vinegar, wine Grapes are mostly cultivated in Northern regions of Pakistan Available from June to Oct.

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Grapes ProductionPakistan, grape is a minor fruit used as fresh and dry. It ranks on 10th position among fruits in Pakistan. In the year 2008-09 the grape production in Pakistan was estimated to be 122,000 tones on an area of about 14,000 hectares . This was the highest production in the last nine years. In Pakistan only European grapes are cultivated commercially .In

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Grapes In Balochistan

Over 70% of grapes are produced in Balochistan, while in other provinces grapes are produced at small scale. After apple grape is the major fruit crop being produced in Balochistan. In Balochistan more than70 % grapes are grown in Pishin, Killa Abdullah and Mastung. The other grape producing areas are Quetta, Zhob and Loralai. The production of grapes in NWFP is very much less in quantity.

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Varieties of grapes

During the last nine years grapes production is growing at the rate of 11.5 percent per annum. Varieties of grapes which are grown in Pakistan include Gola peshweri Sra Kishmish. Sundar Khani. Askari. Flame seedless. King's Ruby. Black Prince. Hussaini and PerletteUSMAN JAVED CHEEMA

Kala munakka

Hussani

Black Prince.

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Flame seedless

kings ruby

perlette

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Life Cycle of a GrapevineNew Bud

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Flowering

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Immature Grape Cluster

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Crop Load vs. Quality Large crops = lower quality Smaller crop = higher quality Economics of crop size and quality Pruning Irrigation Crop thinning Clone(Propagated through original rootstock vegetatively).

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PruningMost Important Cultural Practices in The Management of Grapes. Select superior potential fruiting wood. Maintain vine shape. Regulate the number of buds retained per vine. Balance fruit productivity and vegetative grow.th

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Grape Maturity Sugar content - measured in Brix (1 Brix = 1 %) 21-24 Brix Acidity and pH

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Harvesting Hand Harvesting Labor intensive. Best condition fruit.

Machine Harvesting No need for large picking crews. Fruit quality can be less than hand harvested.

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Grape Harvest in France

Grape Harvester in USA

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Pests and Diseases Rot and Powdery & Downey mildew Usually controlled with applications of sulpher Anthracnose Botrytis Japanese Beetle Moth Mites

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Diseases

Downey Mildew

Powdery Mildew

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Diseases

Grapes Anthracnose

Botrytis Effect

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Role of Contractor & Middle-man

The role of these contractor, they visit the vineyards and analyze the product and deal a contract considering the quality and quantity of the grapes. They give 50% payment to farmer at the spot and remaining is given after selling the product. The middleman arrange the labor and transport by themselves.

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Transportation

Grapes after sorting and packing in the field are transported to their destiny. A middleman M. Omar Javeed told us some quantity of grapes is being imported from Afghanistan to Pakistan and it reaches from Afghanistan to Faisalabad. In about 28-32 hours. And grapes are transported from Peshawar to Faisalabad. In 8-9 hours. The contracted driver has to come in time to the destiny otherwise his wages are cut off according to time.

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

Packing

They are generally packed in card boards which according to him cost Rs.27 each. Packing is not according to international standard. If there is no hole present in the box than produce will fast toward senescence. Packing box 5 kg of china grapes while Pakistani grapes packing 10-15 kg.

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

Storage condition

Grapes are not stored for weeks, they are stored in Pakistan for few days and marketed as they have low shelf life. 0 to 2C (32 to 36F), 90-95% relative humidity.

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International Storage Of Grapes

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Market Visit

We visited the Saddhar Market, Faisalabad. We met middlemen, hawkers and some of the farmers to gather info about our crop. We met with middle man named Muhammad Omar Javeed, 46 years old having experience of 16 years.

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Auctioning

Auctioning was being done at 7:30a.m. The grapes are taken to market here comes the auction again each packet is evaluated according to the quality normally hawkers do this for conveying the commodity to the final consumers. Each packet varies in weight from 05-15 kg. Middle man gets Rs.10 on the each packet. 3-5% additional profit from the farmer in selling his product in the market, in this way the middlemen takes so much profit .

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USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

Varieties of Grapes in Market

Sunderkhani Gola Peshawari Chines Grapes Kala Manakka. Sunderkhani is preferred in the market because of its sweet taste and it costs Rs.1200-1400/ 10 Kg cardboard box . China grapes is Rs.500/5Kg packet. This price was in auction.

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

Availability in Market

Normally these verities except china grapes are available in market from AUG-OCT and they are sold at peak in especially in the month of Ramadan. In November the quantity of sunderkhani reduces and selling of china grapes start. The only problem with china grapes is that they are not sweet, almost tasteless.

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People Demand

The problem with cultivar TOFI is its seeds. If they are in short supply, then they can be sold at higher rates. Mostly people want seedless grapes.

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA

USMAN JAVED CHEEMA