28010526 textile auxiliaries surf act ant auxiliaries

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Application of Surfactant auxiliariesWirote Sarakarnkosol

Surfactant containing auxiliaryWetting and Rewetting agent Scouring agent Emulsifying and Dispersing agent Levelling agent Defoaming agent

Wetting and Rewetting agent:

Wetting power of surfactant

Middle hydrophilic group surfactant gave higher wetting power than those of end.

Higher wetting power

Lower wetting power

Wetting power of surfactant

Branch or aromatic hydrophobic chain is prefers.


Lower wetting power Higher wetting power

Wetting power of surfactant

Optimum of EO in non-ionic surfactant unit gave maximum wetting power.EO EO EO Low solubility : Lower wetting power


Optimum EO : Highest wetting power


High water affinity :Lower wetting power

pH of wetting agent applicationpH Strongly alkaline Weakly alkaline Anionic wetting agent Easily soluble surfactants with relatively low MW are applicable. Those with ester linkage are hydrolyse Applicable Nonionic wetting agent Not-applicable (insoluble)

Generally applicable

Nearly neutral

Applicable Applicable, Sulphate type surfactant are decomposed dependinf on conditions. Generally not applicable. In some cases particular sulphonate type are applicable


Weakly acid


Strongly acid

Generally applicable

pH of textile applicationStrongly alkaline Weakly alkaline Nearly neutral Weakly acid Strongly acid

Mercerization, Causticization General scouring, bleaching,dyeing (Vat, Sulphur) Desizing, Dyeing (Direct, Reactive) Chlorite bleaching, Dyeing (Acid, Disperse) Carbonization

Wetting agent for desizing process

Enzymatic desizingNot deactivate enzyme Good detergency Should use nonionic wetting agent

Polyethylene glycol ether Block copolymer EO, PPO ether

Oxidative desizing : should use nonionic or sulphonate anionic typeResistance to persulphate

As Enzymatic desizing Sulphosuccinate derivative

Wetting agent for scouring processHigh wetting power Good detergency and emulsifying Not specify the chemical alone Should use the blends of anionic and nonionic surfactant.

Fatty alkyl sulfate, sulfonate and phosphate Ethoxylated fatty alcohol Ethoxylated octyl-/ nonyl- phenol

Wetting agent for bleaching

Resistance to oxidising agentH2O2 resistance

Ethoxylated alkyl phenol

Hypochlorite resistanceDisodium alkyl diphenyl ether Sodium alkane sulfonate

Chlorite resistanceEO of short chain carbon alcohol EO of alkylphenol EO + anionic surfactant

Wetting agent for carbonising process

Resistance the mineral acid conditionNonionic surfactant Sulfonated anionic surfactant

Wetting agent for mercerisation

Resistance to strongly alkaline Small hydrophobic group and good alkaline solubilityPhenol derivative Blends of ethyl hexanol sulfate with organic solvent Short-chain alkylphosphonate esters

Wetting agent for mercerisation soluble in concentrated alkaline Conventional wetting agent (insoluble in concentrated alkaline) poor wetting in neutral still wetting property in alkaline

Rewetting agentPromote wetting property of substrate after drying Not necessary to good wetting property

Anionic surfactant High EO unit nonionic surfactant

Scouring agent :

Factor for scouringWetting/Penetrating effect Emulsifying/dispersing Solubilizing effect Detergency Foaming effect Other effects

Effects of scouring agent


Mechanical effect involved in washing

Structural propose for scouring agent

Longer chain hydrophobic with remaining soluble Linear hydrophobic part End position of hydrophilic part Cloud point is slightly higher than process temperature (non-ionic) Optimum EO unit (different for hydrophobic part) Ionic head group can increase the detergency of PEO surfactant (e.g. Laureth sulfate) Not adsorb on the fiber

Schematic of Scouring process(a) Surface covered with greasy dirt.

(b) Surfactant is added to the solution. It reduce adhesion of dirt to the surface when deposited with hydrophobic tails on the surface.

(c) Dirt particle are held as a suspension.

Mechanism for greasy dirt removal from substrate

(a) Roll-up

(b) Emulsification

(c) Solubilisation

Example of scouring agent with variation of typesDetergent Sodium salts of sulfuric ester of higher alcohol Lauryl diethanolamide (1:2 type) Blends of above detergent 10 mole EO adducts of nonylphenol 0.3% solution of each chemical % Detergency = [(A B)/(C B)] x 100Where A = Reflectant of soiled fabric after wash B = Reflectant of soiled fabric before wash C = Reflectant of white fabricStandard soiled solution contained1 partFully hydrogenated tallow 3 parts Liquid paraffin 0.8 part Carbon black 800 parts Carbon tetrachloride

% Detergency35.3 48.4 46.0 47.0

Emulsifying & Dispersing agent :

Distinguish of term

Emulsifying agent (Emulsifier)Agent for help immiscibility liquid/liquid to uniformly distribute in each phase (liquid/liquid)

Dispersing agentAgent for help uniformly distribute of solid in liquid phase (solid/liquid)

Emulsifying agentHigh HLB values use for O/W emulsion Low HLB values use for W/O emulsion Mix of 2 or 3 emulsifiers can gave emulsion stability than those of single use

All of type of surfactant can be used for emulsifier depends on liquid/liquid phase

Schematic of anionic emulsion (O/W)

Dispersing agent

Dispersing agent for disperse dyesAnionic dispersing agent

Naphthalene sulfonate Lignin sulfonate

Nonionic dispersing agentHigher EO alcohol ethoxylate Higher EO non-ionic surfactant

Typical anionic dispersing agentNapthalene sulfonate

Lignin sulfonate

Model of the disperse dye system

Dispersion thermal stability on dispersing agent structure

Levelling agent :Levelness


Main mechanisms of levelling agents

Nonionic agentsUsually form water-soluble complexes with the dye, some degree of solubilisation being involved

Ionic agentsDye-substantive

Form complexes with the dye and there is competition between the levelling agent and the fibre for the dye competition between levelling agent and the dye for the fibre


Levelling agent types and their uses

Levelling agent for acid dyes

Cationic levelling agent

Anionic levelling agent

Schematic representation of solubilised acid dye-agent complex

Mechanism of levelling for acid dyes1. Complex dye-levellingDye-SO 3-

Levelling-N R4 O C N H Dye-SO 3-


Splitting out

Levelling-N R4


N H3


O C Dye-SO 3 N H N H3+



Dye-SO 3


N H3



Levelling-SO 3



Levelling-SO 3 N H Dye-SO 3+


2. Competitive anionic levelling

N H3

Splitting out


Dye-SO 3


Levelling-SO 3


N H3


Levelling agent for disperse dyes

Non-ionic levelling agent tend to be separated at high temperature but can increase dyes solubilisation (Low cloud point) Anionic levelling agent can increase the cloud point of nonionic agent Should synergistic mixing together 7-10% of B in A can increase cloud point of A alone (105oC) to 150oC Fully effective at pH >7 (Carefully selection of dyes)

(A) fatty acid ethoxylate

(B) sodiumdodecylbenzenesulphonate

Levelling agent for disperse dyes

Modified nonionic (or Modified anionic, Weakly anionic)Phosphate ester ethoxylationHigh temperature stability Protect hardness and trace metal ion Stabilise under high concentration of electrolyte Fully effective at pH 4-5 (pH of disperse dyeing)

Levelling agent for disperse dyes

Oligo-soaps or Ethoxylated multi-ester compounds.More stable dye dispersion at high temperature Solubilisation take place at a lower temperature Dyeing rate at lower temp. is much slower Solubilisation of oligomer and acrylic size Low foaming

Defoaming agent :

Foam breaking mechanism

Typical defoaming agent

Organic based defoamersRelatively poor foam control Some tend to leave deposit on machine Example is propylene-1,2-glycol mononeodecanoate

Typical defoaming agent

Silicone based defoamersHigh efficiency for controlling the foam If the emulsion use not suitable emulsifier, Silicone spot is usually occur. Example is ethoxylated polydimethyl siloxane

Conclusion : Surfactant auxiliarySurfactant contain the balancing of hydrophilic part and hydrophobic part. CMC and Cloud point of surfactants can indicate their application and property. Surfactant usually locate at interphase. Ionicity of surfactant is the important function for choosing.