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2. Needs Assessment. Reading Prosody Jessica Rauth. Needs Assessment Model. Discrepancy-Based Needs Assessment : Need 1: Awareness of prosody as an inseparable component of reading fluency Fluency is recognized as an essential component of skilled reading. (National Reading Panel, 2000) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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2. Needs Assessment

2. Needs AssessmentReading Prosody

Jessica Rauth

Needs Assessment ModelDiscrepancy-Based Needs Assessment:Need 1: Awareness of prosody as an inseparable component of reading fluencyFluency is recognized as an essential component of skilled reading. (National Reading Panel, 2000)Fluencys significance in reading instruction has not been acknowledged until recently, and deserves further investigation. (Allington, 1983; Ness, 2009)Current Expectation: Fluency is defined as the ability to read at a reasonable rate (speed), accuracy, and proper expression (prosody). Current Performance: Unfortunately, many teachers disconnect the components of reading fluency, focusing on reading rate and accuracy, and leaving out the component of prosody. (Dowhower, 1991; Hicks, 2009)How can teachers assess prosody when they do not even know what prosody is?

In a study conducted by The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), it was found that 44% of 4th grade students were not fluent with grade-level texts (Pinnell et al., 1995). 2Current Expectations WA State GLEs GLE 1.4.2: Apply fluency to enhance comprehension.Grade 1: Read aloud familiar grade-level text with accuracy in a manner that sounds like natural speech. Read aloud unpracticed grade-level text with fluency in a range of 5065+ words correct per minute. Grade 2: Read grade-level text aloud fluently with expression. Read aloud unpracticed grade-level text with fluency in a range of 90100+ words correct per minute. Grade 3: Read aloud familiar grade-level informational/expository text and literary/narrative text accurately, using appropriate pacing, phrasing, and expression. Read aloud unpracticed grade-level text with fluency in a range of 110120+ words correct per minute. Grade 4: Read aloud grade-level literary/narrative text and informational/expository text accurately, using appropriate pacing, phrasing, and expression. Read aloud unpracticed grade-level text with fluency in a range of 115125+ words correct per minute. Grade 5: Read aloud grade-level informational/ expository text and literary/narrative text accurately, using appropriate pacing, phrasing, and expression. Read aloud unpracticed grade-level text with fluency in a range of 125135+ words correct per minute.Grade 6: Read aloud grade-level informational/ expository text and literary/narrative text accurately, using appropriate pacing, phrasing, and expression. Read aloud unpracticed grade-level text with fluency in a range of 145155+ words correct per minute.Grade 7: Read aloud grade-level literary/narrative text and informational/expository text accurately, using appropriate pacing, phrasing, and expression. Read aloud unpracticed grade-level text with fluency in a range of 145155+ words correct per minute.Grade 8: Read grade-level literary/narrative text and informational/expository text orally with accuracy, using appropriate pacing, phrasing, and expression. Read aloud unpracticed grade-level text with fluency in a range of 145155+ words correct per minute. If prosody is a component of reading fluency, and if prosody is explicitly stated in Washington State Standards, why are teachers NOT teaching and assessing prosody?3Needs Assessment ModelDiscrepancy-Based Needs AssessmentNeed 2: Effective assessment of reading prosodyCurrent Expectation: Teachers are expected to use assessment-driven instruction. Current Performance:Reliable and valid measures of oral reading fluency (rate and accuracy) are widely used and used effectivelyDynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Curriculum Based Measures (CBM)Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT) What is not as well documented is the use of reliable measures when determining the rate of growth in prosody skills. Current measures used:NAEP 4-point fluency scaleAllingtons 6-point scaleZutell & Rasinskis 4-point scaleHow can teachers effectively assess reading expression when there is not currently a reliable measure of prosody?

Instructional/Training NeedsNeed 1: Pre-service teachers, paraprofessionals, and currently certificated educators need training on reading prosody as an inseparable component of reading fluency. Need 2: Pre-service teachers, paraprofessionals, and currently certificated educators need training on how to use a developing prosody measure (currently being tested for reliability).

Non-Instructional NeedsCommunication with school districts and universitiesSupport of school districts and universitiesLearners acknowledgement of the need for trainingLearners motivation to continue learning & implementing research-based best practices

Learning EnvironmentTechnology Requirements: Computer, projector, audio, microphoneClassroom setting: Desks or tables, chairs

The LearnersPre-service teachers (Education program students, student teachers, etc.)ParaprofessionalsCertificated teachersAdministrators ?

Recommended ReadingsDowhower, S. L. (1991). Speaking of prosody: Fluency's unattended bedfellow. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 165. Retrieved from EBSCOhost Kuhn, M. R., Schwanenflugel, P. J., Meisinger, E. B., Levy, B. A., & Rasinski, T. V. (2010). Aligning theory and assessment of reading fluency: Automaticity, prosody, and definitions of fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 230-251. Retrieved from EBSCOhostSchrauben, J. E. (2010). Prosody's contribution to fluency: An examination of the theory of automatic information processing. Reading Psychology, 31(1), 82-92. doi:10.1080/02702710902753996 Schreiber, P. A. (1991). Understanding prosody's role in reading acquisition. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 158. Retrieved from EBSCOhost

ReferencesAllington, R. L. (1983). Fluency: The neglected reading goal. Reading Teacher, 36(6), 556-61. Retrieved from EBSCOhostDowhower, S. L. (1991). Speaking of prosody: Fluency's unattended bedfellow. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 165. Retrieved from EBSCOhost Hicks, C. P. (2009). A lesson on reading fluency learned from the tortoise and the hare. Reading Teacher, 63(4), 219-223. Retrieved from EBSCOhost National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment for reading instruction. NIH Publication No. 00-4754. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from:http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/report.cfm. Ness, M. (2009). Laughing through rereadings: Using joke books to build fluency. Reading Teacher, 62(8), 691-694. doi: 10.1598/RT.62.8.7 Zutell, J., & Rasinski, T. V. (1991). Training teachers to attend to their student's oral reading fluency. Theory into Practice, 30(3), 211. Retrieved from EBSCOhost