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  • 1

    Univerzita Jana Evangelisty Purkyn

    Fakulta ivotnho prosted

    Zklady analytick chemie

    Ing. Sylvie Keneck

    2007

  • 2

    Obsah: ANALYTICK CHEMIE - VOD..................................................................................................................... 6 ROZDLEN ANALYTICKCH METOD....................................................................................................... 7 DLEIT POJMY V KVALITATIVN A KVANTITATIVN ANALZE................................................ 8 ODBR A PRAVA VZORK .......................................................................................................................... 9

    ODBR ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 VZORKOVN OVZDU ..................................................................................................................................... 11

    Vzorkovn vnjho ovzdu........................................................................................................................ 11 ODBR KAPALNCH VZORK ............................................................................................................................ 12

    Vzorkovn povrchovch vod....................................................................................................................... 13 Vzorkovn odpadnch vod .......................................................................................................................... 14

    VZORKOVN ODPAD ...................................................................................................................................... 14 UCHOVVN ODEBRANCH VZORK............................................................................................................... 15

    PRAVA VZORK ........................................................................................................................................... 15 PEVDN ANORGANICKCH LTEK DO ROZTOKU .......................................................................................... 16

    Rozpoutn v nereaktivnch rozpoutdlech ............................................................................................... 16 Rozpoutn v reaktivnch rozpoutdlech................................................................................................... 16 Jin zpsoby rozkladu.................................................................................................................................. 19

    KVALITATIVN ANORGANICK ANALZA............................................................................................ 20 SKUPINOV REAKCE KATIONT......................................................................................................................... 20

    Reakce s kyselinou chlorovodkovou ........................................................................................................... 20 Reakce s kyselinou srovou .......................................................................................................................... 21 Reakce se sirovodkem v kyselm prosted................................................................................................. 21 Reakce se sulfidem amonnm ...................................................................................................................... 21 Reakce s hydroxidy alkalickch kov .......................................................................................................... 22 Reakce s vodnm roztokem amoniaku ......................................................................................................... 22 Reakce s jodidem draselnm........................................................................................................................ 23 Reakce s uhliitany alkalickch kov .......................................................................................................... 23 Reakce s alkalickm fosforenanem ............................................................................................................ 24

    VYBRAN REAKCE ANIONT ............................................................................................................................. 24 ANALZA ORGANICKCH LTEK............................................................................................................ 26 ELEMENTRN ANALZA............................................................................................................................ 26

    STANOVEN UHLKU, VODKU, DUSKU, SRY A HALOGEN ............................................................................... 26 IDENTIFIKACE JEDNOTLIVCH SKUPIN ORGANICKCH LTEK................................................. 27

    NASYCEN ALIFATICK UHLOVODKY .............................................................................................................. 27 NENASYCEN UHLOVODKY.............................................................................................................................. 27 DKAZ HYDROXYLOV SKUPINY ...................................................................................................................... 28

    Dkaz alkohol ............................................................................................................................................ 28 Dkaz fenol ................................................................................................................................................ 28

    DKAZ KARBOXYLOV SKUPINY ...................................................................................................................... 28 DKAZ AMIN .................................................................................................................................................. 28

    VKOV ANALZA - GRAVIMETRIE..................................................................................................... 29 SOUIN ROZPUSTNOSTI ..................................................................................................................................... 29 OBECN POSTUP VKOV ANALZY ............................................................................................................... 30 PKLADY STANOVEN NKTERCH PRVK A SKUPIN ....................................................................................... 31

    PROTOLYTICK ROVNOVHY................................................................................................................... 32 ROVNOVN KONSTANTY PROTOLYTICKCH REAKC..................................................................................... 33

    ODMRN ANALZA (TITRACE) ............................................................................................................... 35 VIZULN INDIKACE KONCE TITRACE ................................................................................................................ 35

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    Bezindiktorov zpsoby ............................................................................................................................. 35 Za pouit chemickch indiktor ................................................................................................................ 36

    INSTRUMENTLN INDIKACE ............................................................................................................................. 37 Potenciometrick titrace.............................................................................................................................. 37 Konduktometrick titrace ............................................................................................................................ 37 Amperometrick titrace ............................................................................................................................... 37 Fotometrick titrace .................................................................................................................................... 38

    TITRAN KIVKA ............................................................................................................................................. 38 Titran kivky acidobazickch titrac ......................................................................................................... 39 Pklady acidobazickch titranch kivek................................................................................................... 40 Acidobazick titrace vcesytn kyseliny....................................................................................................... 42

    NEUTRALIZAN TITRACE................................................................................................................................. 42 Acidimetrie .................................................................................................................................................. 42 Alkalimetrie ................................................................................................................................................. 43

    CHELATOMETRIE .............................................................................................................................................. 43 ARGENTOMETRIE .............................................................................................................................................. 44 OXIDAN-REDUKN TITRACE......................................................................................................................... 44

    Manganometrie............................................................................................................................................ 44 Dichromatometrie......................................................

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