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  • Enablers and Constraints of an Effective and Sustainable Mother Tongue-Based

    Multilingual Education Policy in the Philippines

    Catherine M.B. Young

    March 2011

    School of Education Bangor University

    This thesis is submitted in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Ph.D. of Bangor University

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    Declaration/Statements DECLARATION This work has not previously been accepted in substance for any degree and is not being concurrently submitted in candidature for any degree unless as agreed by the University for approved dual awards. Signed .. (candidate) Date .. STATEMENT 1 This thesis is the result of my own investigations, except where otherwise stated. Other sources are acknowledged by notes giving explicit references. A bibliography is appended. Signed . (candidate) Date . STATEMENT 2 I hereby give consent for my thesis, if accepted, to be available for photocopying, for inter-library loan and for electronic repositories, and for the title and summary to be made available to outside organisations. Signed . (candidate) Date .

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    Acknowledgements Writing this thesis has not been an easy task. While this thesis is my own work, it would not have been possible for me to complete it without the help and support of many colleagues, friends and family. For all who have walked with me through this extended period of distraction and who have helped me see it through to completion, I thank you all! I am particularly grateful to my supervisor, Colin Baker, for his constant interest, input and encouragement throughout the years that I have studied to complete this research thesis. His comments have always been helpful and his gift of encouragement has spurred me on the many occasions when I have been overwhelmed. This study would not have been possible without input from many friends in the Philippines and other parts of Asia. I am grateful to colleagues from SIL LEAD Asia, SIL Philippines and the Translators Association of the Philippines as well as friends from the Department of Education and the Linguistic Society of the Philippines. Such friends are a blessing and I am grateful for their encouragement and support as I have learned more about language and education in the Philippines. My thanks are also due to SIL International who contributed financially to the costs involved in this Ph.D. study programme. The late Dr. Andrew Gonzalez and the late Dr. Bonifacio Sibayan were both of great help in the early years of this study as I began to explore ideas concerning language and education for minority ethnolinguistic communities. Dennis and Susan Malone, Steve Quakenbush and Larry Jones are due particular thanks for their inspiration before I began my studies. I am grateful to my friends and colleagues, Bill Hall, Sue McQuay and Steve Quakenbush for their patience and willingness to read portions of the text of this thesis. Remaining mistakes must have crept in after their last check. Alan Pickard offered invaluable help in formatting the text. My parents, Grace and Allan Young, are a constant source of steadfast love and encouragement. Thank you!

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    Abbreviations and Acronyms EFA Education for All ADB Asian Development Bank AIJC Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication ARMM Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations BE Bilingual Education BEP Bilingual Education Policy BESRA Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda BPS Bureau of Public Schools CFO Commission on Filipinos Overseas CHRP Commission on Human Rights, Philippines CHT Chittagong Hill Tracts CODOFIL Council for the Development of French in Louisiana CPP Communist Party of the Philippines DECS Department of Education, Culture and Sports DepEd Department of Education DFID Department for International Development, UK EC European Community ECOSOC Economic and Social Council (of the United Nations) EDCOM Congressional Commission on Education EMC Ethnic Minority Communities FLC First Language Component FLC-BP First Language Component Bridging Programme FTI Fast Track Initiative G8 Group of 8 (International forum of eight industrialised nations) GDP Gross Domestic Product GIDS Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale IBE International Bureau of Education ICC Indigenous Cultural Communities IFI International Financial Institution ILO International Labour Organisation INF Institute of National Language INGO International Non-Governmental Organisation IP Indigenous Peoples IPRA Indigenous Peoples Rights Act KWF Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino L1 First Language L2 Second Language LHR Linguistic Human Rights LWC Language of Wider Communication MDG Millennium Development Goals MLE Multilingual education MOI Medium of Instruction MT Mother Tongue MT-F MLE Mother tongue first multilingual education MTB-MLE Mother tongue-based multilingual education

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    NCCA National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Philippines NCIP National Commission on Indigenous Peoples NGO Non-Government Organisation NPA New Peoples Army NVSIT Nueva Vizcaya State Institute of Technology NVSU Nueva Vizcaya State University OFW Overseas Foreign Worker PCER Philippine Commission on Educational Reform PCL Philippine Centre for Languages PCLS Philippine Centre for Language Study PISA Programme for International Student Assessment PPP Purchasing Power Parity PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper SEAMEO South East Asian Ministers of Education Organisation SIL International (formerly known as) Summer Institute of Linguistics SY School Year TIMMS Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study UN United Nations UN-ISG United Nations International Support Group UNACOM United Nations National Commission, Philippines UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation UNHCHR United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights UNICEF United Nations Childrens Fund (originally United Nations

    International Children's Emergency Fund) USIP United States Institute of Peace USS United States Ship

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    Key Concepts1 Bilingual/Multilingual Education

    The use of two or more languages for instruction and attaining literacy.

    Biliteracy The use of two or more languages for reading and writing First language; L1 The language that a person speaks as their mother tongue or

    home language. It is often the language a person learnt first or most closely identifies with. A bi- or multilingual person may have more than one first language.

    Indigenous Something or a group of people that originate from the location in focus rather than having recently come from the outside

    Language Policy Legislation on and practices pertaining to the uses of languages in society

    Language-in-education policy

    Legislation on and practices pertaining to the uses of languages as media of instruction and languages of literacy in education.

    Language of instruction

    The language through which the content of the education curriculum is delivered. This may be determined either by official language policy or as a response by educators to perceived needs of learners.

    Language of literacy The language through which literacy reading and writing is learned.

    Language of wider communication

    A language that speakers of different languages use to communicate with each other. This is often also called a lingua franca.

    Local language A language spoken in a restricted geographical area and usually not learned as a second language by people outside the immediate language community

    Minority Ethnolinguistic Community

    A group of people who share a culture or ethnicity and/or language that distinguishes them from other groups of people. They may be fewer in number or less prestigious in terms of power than predominant groups in the same nation state.

    Mother Tongue The language that a speaker may have learnt first, knows best or most closely identifies with. It may be the language which carers first used to interact with children from birth.

    Mother tongue-based multilingual education

    Education that begins by using the language with which the learner is most familiar as a foundation for on-going education using two or more languages.

    National Language The language defined as the chief language of the nation state. (Crystal 1997:227); the language considered to be an important, widely-spoken language in a country

    1 Adapted from UNESCO 2007a:4-8; Kosonen & Young 2009:10-14; Pinnock 2009:7.

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    Non-dominant Language

    Languages that are not in the minority in their nation but do not have official status and are not used as the official language of instruction in education.

    Official language The language used in public domains for administrative and institutional use for example, judiciary, government and media. (Crystal 1997:227)

    Script The graphic representation of the writing system. Second language (L2) A language that is not the mother tongue of the speaker. It

    may be a national language, language of wider communication or a foreign language.

    Writing system System of visually recording a spoken language

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    Abstract Enablers and Constraints of an Effective and Sustainable Mother Tongue-Based

    Multil ingual Education Policy in the Philippines

    This thesis focuses on the development of effective and sustainable policies that can support systems of basic education for children from minority ethnolinguistic communities in the complex multilingual context of the Philippines. The aim of the thes

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