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Postcard from Scotland

Young people: throughcare, transitions, integration and reintegration Claire Lightowler claire.lightowler@strath.ac.ukwww.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justice

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceLayers of transitions Childhood to adulthoodSupported to independent living Custodial setting to the community Education to employment Youth to adult justice

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceScotland 2012-13 4.7% of children involved in offending (23,726 kids)

Charged with 43,117 crimes

Young people responsible for 16% of all crimes & offences

Scottish Government (2013) Scottish Policing Performance Framework, 2012-13. www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceFall in detected offences between 2008/9 and 2012/13www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceNo. children referred to the childrens reporter on offence grounds

5www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justicePrison population under 21. 10 October 2014young men: 410 | young women: 29

Young women: 7% (5% of adults)

Untried: 26% of under 21s (16% of adults)

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justice% change in prison receptions 2002-03 to 2010-11www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justice2718 young people leaving prison 2011-12 www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceSecure care population90 beds - 2 beds available (15 October 2014)

35% girls (31 July 2013)

51% are aged 16 or over (31 July 2013)

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justice

Secure admissions 2002/03 to 2011/12

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceSecure discharges www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceAround 3000 young people transitioning from custody or secure each yearwww.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceSince I turned eight its just been a life of jail. I must have spent about a year since I turned eight, with my mum and dad, the rest of its just been in and out of secure, in and out of residential and now this

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justicethis is the fifth time Ive been in jail and Im only 17. Ive not actually had a chance to prove I can work. Every time I get out I stay with my mum, but I end up getting chucked out because I smoke weed and I end up sitting out my nut every day in my house

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceIve been locked up most of my life so Im used to being locked up. Jail doesnt bother me. Im in that routine now where Ive always been in trouble from a young age, so it doesnt really bother me

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceCare leavers: Key concerns1) having to go back to abusive/problematic families2) feeling alone and abandoned3) poor accommodation 4) no support from services and 5) experiencing homelessness.

310 care leavers aged 17 78 Duncalf (2010)

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceBereavement and LossHow many more people do I have to see die? Im only 19 and thats five people died already and I keep thinking to myself are the rest of them gonna die? And then Ill grow up alone (Vaswani, 2014)

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceBereavement and loss33 young men in Polmont YOI91% had experienced at least one bereavementOver three-quarters experienced traumatic bereavements (murder, suicide, overdose)Two-thirds suffering from substantial bereavements (four or more)

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceSeasons for growthPolmont YOI trying out new group work programme -Seasons for Growth. Designed to help people deal with loss. Weekly sessions 8 weeks First time anyone has run Seasons for Growth in a Young Offenders Institution. www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceInterventions for vulnerable youth (IVY)

Young people presenting a significant risk to others Scotland wide service free for useForensic and clinical psychology, and social work Level 1 - consultation clinicLevel 2 - specialist clinical forensic psychology assessment. Level 3 - (specialist treatment)www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceMental HealthIVY project September 2013 All had input from social work services and looked after status 76% exposed to domestic violence 88% experienced some other form of maltreatmentPsychological/Mental Disorders

N=30MEAN = 4Diagnosed or Suspected DifficultynAnger9Anxiety3Autism Spectrum Disorder12Attachment Disorder7Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder10Communication Disorder2Complex Post Traumatic Stress12Deliberate Self-Harm12Dissociation3Eating Difficulties3 Emotional Dysregulation7Learning Disability3Low Mood2 Oppositional Defiant/Conduct Disorder2 Psychosis2 Sleep Difficulties2 Substance Misuse Difficulties (Alcohol/Drugs)15Suicidal Ideation/Action8Thought Disorder1Toileting Difficulties3Tourettes Syndrome1Unusual perceptual experiences 4

22www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceEdinburgh Study of Youth Transitions & Crime

Cohort of 4,300 young people who started secondary school in Edinburgh in 1998

school exclusion is a key moment impacting adversely on subsequent conviction trajectories (McAra and McVie, 2010)www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justicePolmont studyAt least 80% of the young men had experienced exclusion from school (in 20% of cases there was no mention of this)High levels of school exclusions at primary school age However, the majority had some positive experience of education

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justice

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceSpeech, language & communication needs Prevalence in the youth justice population between 50% and 60% (UK wide) Survey of Scottish local authorities (17 responses received)35% reported that their area used tools to assess children and young people for SLCNOnly 41% reported that there were services or interventions available in their areas to support young people with SLCN

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceOutside In, Youth Work serviceOutside In, Youth Work service Provided in Cornton Vale and Polmont for young people between 16-21Delivered by Barnardo's Scotland in partnership with Caledonia YouthInformal education: duke of Edinburgh, music, health and well-being, film making, arts and crafts, mental health, anti-bullying, alternatives to violencewww.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceLast time I got out the women from Plan B helped me get a college course but when they got back to me I was in court and I ended up getting the jail

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceActivity agreements Young people who without additional support might not successfully transition to work, further education or trainingFormal agreement between a young person and an advisorearly identification of those in need of additional supportMight receive Education Maintenance Allowance (EMA) for complying

www.cycj.org.uk developing, supporting & understanding youth justiceActivity agreements and youth justice pilot10 local authority areas To better identify and support young people at risk of disengaging from learningTo provide them with bespoke learning to prevent them entering the justice systemEstablish a joint coherent approach between WSA a

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