You will learn how stars are made. You will also learn how stars are your great great great great great - grandparents! Hi,

Download You will learn how stars are made. You will also learn how stars are your great       great  great     great  great - grandparents! Hi,

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Slide 2 You will learn how stars are made. You will also learn how stars are your great great great great great - grandparents! Hi, kids! The Sun Song (rock version) The Sun Song (classic version) Slide 3 All stars are born in nebulae. A nebula is an enormous cloud of hydrogen and helium gas in space. nebula Slide 4 One of the stars in Orion is actually a nebula click to zoom in Slide 5 Another famous nebula: The Horsehead nebula Slide 6 Over time, the nebulas own gravity makes the nebula come together into a ball, called a protostar nebula protostar Slide 7 When hydrogen fuses into helium, it gives off light (photons). This is why stars shine! The pressure inside a protostar is so strong that hydrogen (H) fuses together to become helium (He) HH HH He Slide 8 Fusion happens billions of times every second inside a star HH HH He HH HH HH HH HH HH Slide 9 Stars shine because of nuclear fusion! HH HH He HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH HH Slide 10 Protostars look like this: Slide 11 Eventually, protostars give off enough light to be officially called stars Dont forget a star is just a big ball of gas! Our sun is just a big ball of gas Slide 12 This imaginary center is called the Barycenter Most stars have a buddy star pairs of stars are called binary star systems X However, you wouldnt be here without stars... Slide 13 Every atom in your body was made by a star! The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, and the carbon in our apple pies were all made in the interior of collapsing stars. We are made of starstuff Carl Sagan The atoms of everything in this room, this town, and this planet were created inside a star! Slide 14 Stars make all the different elements: 3 helium atoms fuse into 1 carbon atom He C Slide 15 4 helium atoms fuse into 1 oxygen atom He O Slide 16 Eventually stars run out of their hydrogen fuel, from the center out This star has no more hydrogen in its center only in its outer edge. This causes the stars exterior to expand and cool. This star is now a called a Red Giant cool stars are red Slide 17 Our sun will become a red giant in about 5 billion years Slide 18 Oh no, the sun will blow up in 157, 787, 999, 999, 999,seconds ! (2,629,800,000,000,000 minutes) (43,830,000,000,000 hours) (1,826,250,000,000 days) (5,000,000,000 years) Assume 365.25 days per year Debug: in presentation mode, start countdown. Then escape from presentation mode. Then return to presentation mode. It will work Slide 19 M V Mercury and Venus will be destroyed Our sun is currently a Main Sequence star but will grow into a Red Giant! Help! Is it getting hot in here or is it just me? E Slide 20 After all the fusion stops inside a red giant, the gases float away and only the core remains This core is called a White Dwarf This leftover gas is called a Planetary Nebula Slide 21 Example of a planetary nebula Slide 22 Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 The White Dwarf is the burned out core of the star like a burnt piece of charcoal Slide 26 Eventually, white dwarfs fade to black as they cool off Slide 27 Stars smaller than our sun never become red giants they just fizzle out into white dwarfs Which eventually burns out completely into a Black Dwarf Slide 28 Stars much larger than our sun become enormous red giants Betelgeuse click to zoom in Slide 29 A super red giant has intense fusion in its core and explodes into a supernova A supernova can be brighter than a million stars! Slide 30 Example of a Supernova The last Supernova we observed without a telescope was in 1604. It was so bright you could see it in the day time! Slide 31 The white dwarf inside a supernova collapses into a neutron star neutron star Slide 32 A neutron star inside the Puppis Supernova Youll learn more about neutron stars soon Slide 33 Really big neutron stars collapse into black holes Youll learn more about black holes soon too Slide 34 Slide 35