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\Ylertical and Horizontal Deformations of Foundations and Embankments

Proceedings of Settlement '94

Sponsored by the Geotechnical Engineering Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers

in cooperation with the Federai Highway Administration National Science Foundation

Hosted by the Department of Civil Engineering

Texas A&M University

College Station, Texas June 16-18, 1994

Geotechnical Special Publication No. 40

, Edited by Albert T. Yeung and Guy V. Flio

~ '(% Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers 345 East 47th Street New York, New York 10017-2398

Volume 2

CONTENTS

Opening Lecture

lnvited Lecture: Use and Abuse of Settlement Analysis Ralph B. Peck 0 0 o OO o o l

Session l Embankments on Clay I

lnvited Lecture: Settlement of Embankments on Sofl Clays Gholamreza Mesri, Dominic O. Kwan Lo, and Tao-Wei Feng . ... .. . .. .. .. .. . ..... . . 8

lnvited Lecture: Compressibility of C!ays: Fundamental and Practical Aspects Serge Leroueil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ..... 57

Session 2 Embankments on Clay II

lnvited Lecture: Stre.ss-Deformation Behavior of an Embankment on Boston Blue Clay Charles C. Ladd, Andrew L Whittle, and Dante E. Legaspi, Jr ... . ... . .... .. . . . .. 1730

lnvited Lecture: Methods to Reduce the Settlement of Emban.kments on Soft Clay: A Review

Jean-Pierre Magnan .... .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. . .... .. .. o .. . . . o o . . o ... 77

Session 3 Shallow Foundations on Clay

lnvited Lecture: Settlement of Tanks on Clay J. Michael Duncan, Timothy B. D'Orazio, and Phil Myers . . ..... o . .. . .. ... . . o ... . 92

Invited Lecrure: Mat Foundation Design: An Historical Perspective Edward Jo Ulrich . o . . .. . . . . . . . .......... .. .. .. . ... . .. . .. .. .. .... .. .. . .. o . .. 107

Session 4ol Shallow Foundations I

Effects of SPT Equipment and Procedures on the Design of Shallow Foundations on Sand

William D. Kovacs . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. ...... . .. . .. . ..... . .. o .. .. . o o . .. . ... .. 121 Predicting Shallow Foundation Settlement in Sands from DMT

D.L. Skiles and F.C. Townsend .. .. .. . . . ......... . .. .. .. . .. o . .. .. .. o .. o . . .. . 132 53 W AK Tests on Spread Footings

James C. Maxwell and Jean-Louis Briaud .. .. .. o .. . .. . o o . . .. .. o . ..... ..... . ... 143 Wak and Full-Scale Load Tesrs on Granular Fili

Kevin G. Sutterer, Karl W. Myers, and Glenn J. Rix ... o o o o o . . . ...... . . o ... . . .. !53 Footing Load Tests on Sand

Kenneth Tand, Erik Funegard, and Pickett Warden . . . .. .. .. . . . ... ...... o 164 Venical and Horizontal Deformations for Foundations on Sand: An Experimental Study

Christos N. Marangos .. .. . .. ... . ... . . ... . ... . ...... . . . .. .......... ....... . 179 Stress and Settlement of Footings in Sand

Bengt_H. Fellenius and Ameir Altaee . ... . .... .. .. o .. ... . o o ..... o o .. . .. o o o . .. 1760

iii

Scttlement of Shallow Foundations on Sand Harvey E. Wahls and Mukesh Gupta . . . . . . . . . . .. 190

Settlement Behavior of an Avalanche Protection Gallery Founded on Loose Sandy Silt Walter Steiner . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... . ...... .. 207

Displacement of Landmark Building Resulting from Adjacent Construction Activities Jacek K. Leznicki, Robert G. Gaibrois, :and Melvin l. Esrig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Session 4.2 Deep Foundations l

Uplift Load-displacement Behavior of Grillage Foundations Fred H. Kulhawy and Harry E. Stewart . . ....... . .. .. ... . ... .. .. ... . .. . ....... 233

Horizomal and Vertical Movements of Bridge Piers Subjected to Ship lmpact Naresh C. Samtani, Jaw-Nan Wang, Frank Pepe, Jr. , and Michael J. Abrahams ... .. 245

Deformations in Sand Layer during Pile Driving Francis D. Leathers .. .. .. ... ... . ...... . . . . .... .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .... 257

Pile Sett1ement Based on Dynamic Measurements Samuel G . Paikowsky, Valerie A. LaBelle, John E. Regan, and Les R. Chernauskas . .. 269

Testing and Predicting the Movement of a Drilled Shaft in New Mexico Koon Meng Chua, Wimpie A. N. Aspar, and Robert Meyers . . ... . .. . ... .... .. . . 279

Static Pile Load-Movement from Dynamic Measurements Frank Rausche, Mohamad Hussein, Garland Likins , and Gabriel Thendean .. ........ 291

Numerica! Study of Underpinning by Piles for Settlement Contro! of Strip Foundations M. Makarchian and H.G. Poulos .. .. . ...... . .. . ... . .. .. . . ..... . ... . ......... 303

Design and Performance of a Piled Raft Foundation Mark Randolph and Patrick Clancy .... . .. . .. . ... ..... .. .. .. . ..... .. ...... . .. 314

Mode! Tests n Caissons Sreenivas Alampalli and Venkatanarayana Peddibotla .. .. .. . . . .. .. . .. ... . ..... . . 325

Session 4.3 Embankments, Deep Fills, and Landfills l

Wanapum Dam Embankment Settlement Study M. Gene Yow, Thomas R. Hollingsworth, and David D. Moore . ..... .. .. .. .. . .. . 337

Analysis of the Juturnaiba Embankment Dam Built on an Organic Soft Clay Roberto Q. Coutinho, Marcio S.S. Almeida, and Jose Bernardino Borges .. . ... .. . . . 348

Replacement of a Failed Embankment Designed to Accommodate Large Settlement: A case study

B. Kent Merritt and Gary M. Wantland . . . . ... .. .. . . . ... . ..... . ... . .. . . .. . .. . . 364 Settlements of Highway Embankments on Soft Lacustrine Deposits

Loreo R. Anderson, Casan L. Sampaco, Syed H. Gilani, Edward Keane, and Loreo Rausber ... . .. . ... . . ... . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. ..... .. ............ . ... . . 376

Settlement of a 15-Meter Deep Fili be1ow a Building Percy M. Wimberly, III, Samuel G. Mazzella, and F. Barry Newman .. .. .... ..... 398

Performance of Nanhua Dam during Construction Hsien-chang Kao and Jin-ching Chern . ............ . ........ . . .. .. . . . ...... . .. 4 t 7

A Case History of Settlement of an Embankment on Lagoonal Deposits Influenced by Anesian Conditions

An-Bin Huang and Bob Y.K. Wong .. . ... . .. . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . .... . . 426 Settlement Analysis of Landfill Liners over Deep Mined Areas

M. Gabr, J.J. Bowders, and D.T. Mooney ... .. . .. .. . . . ........ . ..... . . . .. .. . . 436 Dynamic Compaction of Landfill beneath Embankment

Paul J . Lewis and James A. Langer . .. . .. .. . .. . . . . .. ... . . .. . .. . . .. . .. . ... . .. . 451

iv

seulcmcnt Evaluation for Cap Closure Pe rformance Edward M. Zamiskie, M. Golam Kabir. and Andre Haddad . . . . ...... ............ 462

Session 4.4 Soil lmprovement I

prcJoading Organic Soi1s to Limit Future Settlements K. Peter Yu and Rudo1ph P. Frizzi ......... ........ , ... .. . . .... . . ... ... . .. . . 476

The Contro! (lf Seu1emem Using Geogrids Gunther E. Bauer . . ... .... . .. .. . .............. ....... .... ... .. . .. ... .. .... 49 1

Blast Densification of a Thick, Loose Debris Aow at Mt. St. Helen 's, Washington Joseph E. Hachey, Robert L. Plum, R. John Byrne, Alan P. Ki lian, and David V. Jenkins ... . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. ............ .. . .. . . .. .. .. ...... . ..... 502

An lnvestigation of the Reinforcing Effect of Stone Columns in Soft Clay Doug Stewart and Martin Fabey .... .............. . .. . ... . ...... . ............ 513

Reduction of Seulements Using Soil Reinforcemem M. Sherif Abdel-Baki and G.P. Raymond ....... . ... .. ..... . ... . ........... ... 525

Strip Foundation on Geogrid-Reinforced C1ay E. C. Shin, B.M. Das, V.K. Puri , and S. C. Yen .... .. . .. ..... .. ......... ...... 538

Performance of Oil Storage Tanks on Vibroflotation Jmproved Hydraulic Fili in the Port of Tampa, Florida

Fintan J. Buggy, Ramon E. Martinez, James D. Hussin, and Richard J. Deschamps ... 548 The Usefulness of Stone Columns to Reduce Seulements and Distortions-A Case History

Enrico Brignoli , Angelo Garassino, and Pietro Renzo ... .... . .... ...... .. ........ 56 1 Settlement Predictions at a Florida Port Facility

Thomas E. Selfridge and Kirk A. Mclntosh ........ ............. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 571 Geocell Mattress Effects on Embankment Senlements

Mark D. Evans .......... . ..... . .. ......... ........ . .. .. .... .. . .. . ........ 584

Session 4.5 Numerica! and Physical Modeling l

Towards a Rational Method of Predicting Settlements of Spread Footings on Sand Martin Fahey, Peter K. Robertson, and Ahmed A . So1iman ........ ..... . . . ... , ... 598

Eccentric Settlements of a Rigid Foundation on a Consolidating Layer Zhongqi Yue and A.P.S . Selvadurai ... ... .. .. .. .... . .. .. ..... . .. . .. . . . ...... 612

lnfluence of Spatially Random Soil Stiffness on Foundation Settlements Geoffrey M. Paice, D. V., Griffiths, and Gordon A. Fenton . . .. . . . .. ... . .... ...... 628

Prediction of Seulemems of Footings on Sands: Accuracy and Reliability Riccardo Berardi and Renato Lancellotta . ............... .......... .. .. ........ 640

An Alternative Formulation of Volume-change Behavior of Soils Sunirmal Banerjee and Kandiah Sribalaskandarajah .. . .. . ... ... . . ............... 652

Nonlinear Und.rained Latera! Response of Rigid Drilled Shafts Using Continuum Theory

Paul W. Mayne, Fred H. Kulhawy, and Charles H. Trautmann .......... . ........ 663 Application of Phase Change Process to One-Dimensional Consolidation Behavior of Peat

Keiji Kogure

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