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- 1. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS http: //www. hikmetsahinemom 139 LECTURE 6 ADVERBS
- 2. 140 httpzllwwwhikmetsahiner. com DR. HiKMET $AHiNER 1. Adverbs can be used to modify verbs. John walked quickly towards the door. Sally sat silently waiting for somebody else to speak rst. 2. Adverbs can be used to modify adjectives. The redwood tree was impressively tall. The blouse was outrageously expensive. 3. Adverbs can be used to modify other adverbs. She spoke extremely confidently. The cheetah ran incredibly quickly. ADJECTIVE OR ADVERB? Vanessa: / like that song that Nate sang. Ron: Yes, its a nice song. And he sang it nicely, too. An adjective (nice) describes a noun An adverb (nicely) describes a verb (song). (sang). The man had a quiet voice. The man spoke quietly. Claire wears expensive clothes. Claire dresses expensively. The runners made a slow start. They started the race slowly. > We do NOT say ice. > We can use adverbs in other ways. An adverb like really or very can be combined with an adjective (hot) 0 another adverb (carefully). It was really hot in the sun. Andrew checked his work very carefully.
- 3. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS http: //www. hikmetsahinercom 141 iv An adverb like fortunately or perhaps says something about the whole situation. Fortunately nothing was stolen. Perhaps Sarah is working late. >> We form many adverbs from an adjective + ly. For example politely, quickly, safely. But there are some special spelling rules. 1 . We do not leave out e, e. g. nice > nicely Exceptions are true > truly, whole > wholly. 2. y> ily after a consonant, e. g. easy> easily, lucky > luckily Also angrily, happily, heavily, etc. 3. le > Iy, e. g. possible > possibly Also comfortably, probably, reasonably, sensibly, terribly, etc. 4. ic . ically, e. g. dramatic > dramatically Also automatically, scientically, etc. (Exception: publicly) LOOKED NICE AND LOOKED CAREFULLY Xv Compare these two structures. LINKING VERB + ADJECTIVE ACTION VERB + ADVERB Tom was hungry. Paul ate hungrily. The children seemed happy. The children played happily. My soup has got cold. The man stared coldly at us. An adjective can come after a linking verb We use an adverb when the verb means such as be. that something happens.
- 4. 142 httpzllwwwhlkmetsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER > Some verbs like look, taste and appear can be either linking verbs or action verbs. LINKING VERB + ADJECTIVE ACTION VERB + ADVERB Mike looked angry. He looked carefully at the signature. The medicine tasted awful. Emma tasted the drink nervously. The man appeared (to he) drunk. A waiter appeared suddenly. > The ending -ly is the normal adverb ending. But a few adjectives also end in -ly. Melanie was very friendly. It was a lively party. We had a lovely time. > Some more examples are: elderly, likely, lonely, silly, ugly > The words are adjectives, not adverbs (NOT - . - . . . ). And we cannot add ly. There is no such word as But we can say in a friendly way I manner. She spoke to us in a friendly way. > If we need to use an adverb, we oen choose another word of similar meaning. It was lovely. Everything went beautifully. Hard, fast. etc > Compare these sentences. AJECTIVE ADVERB We did some hard work. We worked hard. I came on the fast train. The train went quite fast.
- 5. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS httpillwww. hikmetsahiner. com 143 > We can use these words both as adjectives and as adverbs: deep, early, fast, hard, high, late, long, low, near, right, straight, wrong. > In informal English, the adjectives cheap, loud, quick and slow can be adverbs. ADJECTIVE ADVERB They sell cheap clothes in the market. They sell things cheap / cheaply there. Back already! That was quick. Come as quick/ quickly as you can. > There are some pairs of adverbs like hard and hardly which have different meanings. Here are some examples. I tried hard, but I didnt succeed. I've got hardly any money left. (hardly any = very little, almost none) Luckily I found a phone box quite near. Inearly fell asleep in the meeting. (nearly = almost) Rachel arrived late, as usual. I've been very busy lately. (lately = in the last few days I weeks) The plane ew high above the clouds. The material is highly radioactive. (highly = very) We got into the concert free. (free = without paying) The animals are allowed to wander freely. (freely = uncontrolled) > Good is an adjective, and well is its adverb. The opposites are bad and badly. ADJECTIVE ADVERB Nadia is a good violinist. She plays the violin very well. Our test results were good. We all did well in the test. I had a bad night. I slept badly last night. > Well can also be an adjective meaning 'in good health, the opposite of ill. My mother was very ill, but she's quite well again now. How are you? ~ Very well, thank you.
- 6. 144 http: llwww. hikmetsahineroom DR. HIKMET SAHINER THE COMPARISON OF ADVERBS P Some adverbs have the same form as an adjective, e. g. early, fast, hard, high, late, long, near. They form the comparative and superlative with er, est. Can't you run faster than that? Andrew works the hardest. 3 Many adverbs are an adjective + Iy, e. g. carefully, easily, nicely, slowly. They form the comparative and superlative with more, most. We could do this more easily with a computer. Of all the players it was Matthew who planned his tactics the most carefully. P In informal English we use cheaper, cheapest, louder, loudest, quicker, quickest and slower, slowest rather than more cheaply, the most loudly, etc. Melanie reacted the quickest. You should drive slower in fog. 3 Note the forms sooner, soonest and more often, most often. Try to get home sooner. I must exercise more often. r We also use adverbs before adjectives and other adverbs. For example: reasonably cheap (adverb + adjective) terribly sorry (adverb + adjective) incredibly quickly (adverb + adverb) It's a reasonably cheap restaurant and the food is extremely good. Oh, I'm terribly sorry. I didn't mean to push you. (not terrible sorry) Maria learns languages incredibly quickly. The examination was surprisingly easy.
- 7. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS http: //www. hikmetsahinercom 145 > We can also use an adverb before a past participle (injured I organized I written etc. ) Two people were seriously injured in the accident. (not 'serious injured) The meeting was very badly organized. ADVERBS OF MANNER 3 An adverb of manner tells us how something happens, e. g. noisily, quickly. It usually goes in end position, but an adverb which ends in -ly can sometimes go in mid position. We asked permission politely. ADVERBS OF PLACE AND TIME 3 Adverbs and adverbial phrases of place and time usually go in end position. is there a phone box nearby? People didn't have cars then. We're meeting by the entrance. Trevor wasn't very well last week. Did you have a nice time in New York? I'll see you before very long. >v Sometimes they can go in front position. We're really busy this week. Last week we had nothing to do. Av Some short adverbs of time can also go in mid position. I'll soon nd out. The train is now approaching Sivas.
- 8. 146 httpzllwwwhlkmetsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY > An adverb of frequency tells us how oen. It usually goes in mid position (see B). Mark is always in such a hurry. I sometimes feel depressed. I've often thought about getting married. Do you usually work so late? > Normally, usually, often, sometimes and occasionally can also go in front or end position. Normally Sarah goes by train. I feel depressed sometimes. > Phrases like every day, once a week or most evenings go in front or end position. Every day we go logging. Rachel has a driving lesson three times a week. There's a news summary every hour. We watch television most evenings. SENTENCE ADVERBS > A sentence adverb is a word or phrase like certainly, perhaps, luckily, of course. It says something about the situation described in the sentence. The adverb can go in front, mid or end position. Sometimes we put a comma after or before the adverb, especially in front or end position. Fortunately, the weather stayed ne. Maybe you'll win a free holiday. We'll probably have to queue for tickets. Rachel was late, of course.
- 9. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS httpillwww. hikmetsahiner. com 147 > In a negative sentence, probably and certainly come before won't, didn't, etc. We probably won't get there in time. I certainly didn't expect a present! > Also usually goes in mid position, but too and as well go in end position. Melanie bakes lovely cakes. She also makes bread. She makes bread, too / as well. > There can be more than one adverb or adverbial phrase in end position. Usually a single-word adverb (e. g. safely) comes before a phrase (e. g. on a small airfield). They landed safely on a small airfield. I always eat here at lunch-time. > When there is a close link in meaning between a verb and an adverb, then that adverb goes next to the verb. For example, with verbs of movement like go, come and move, a phrase of place comes before time. I usually go to bed early. Tom came here yesterday. My parents moved to London in 1993. > But often two adverbial phrases can go in either order. The concert was held at the arts centre last night. The concert was held last night at the arts centre. YET, STILL AND ALREADY > Yet means that we are expecting something. (It's the time to book a holiday. ) > Still means going on longer than expected. (It's late to be thinking about a holiday. ) > Already means 'soonerthan expected. (It's early to have had a holiday. )
- 10. 148 http: IIwww. hikmetsahineroom DR. HIKMET SAHINER 3 Yet usually goes at the end of a negative statement or a question. Vicky has a present, but she hasn't opened it yet. Wait a minute. I'm not ready yet. Have they sent you your check yet? ~ No, not yet. lshould get it next week. )> In a positive statement, still and already usually go in mid position. Sarah isn't home yet. She's still at work. We wrote a month ago, and we're still waiting for a reply. I've only been at work an hour, and I'm already exhausted. There's no need to tell me. I already know. > We can also use still in a negative statement. It goes before haven't, can't, etc. It's nearly lunch-time, and you still haven't opened your mail. My friend is sixteen, and she still can't swim. 3 Compare these sentences. The meanings are similar. Rita hasn't booked a holiday yet. Rita still hasn't booked a holiday. >> Still is strongerthan yet. It often expresses surprise that the situation has gone on for so long. r In a question still and already usually go aerthe subject. Are you still waiting after all this time? Has Tom already been on holiday? NO LONGER AND ANY LONGER / ANY MORE r No longer means that something is nished. It goes in mid position. You can't buy these bikes now. They no longer make them. I used to belong to the sports club, bLrt I'm no longer a member.
- 11. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS httpillwww. hikmetsahinercom 149 > No longer can be a little formal. In informal speech we use not. .. any longer or not. .. anymore. They don't make these bikes any longer/ any more. Rita has moved She doesn't live here any longer/ any more. > Any longer/ any more comes at the end. INTENSIFIERS With Basic Adjectives and Adverbs > lntensiers are adverbs that enhance adjectives and adverbs. They come before the words they modify. It's quite hot today. Ms. Ford is really busy right now. He s my very best friend. I'm a little tired today. That was a pretty good shot. Sam just got a brand new car. I know her fairly well. It's extremely hot outside. You re absolutely right! Laura is a bit tired. She's been work late at the office. Mark is quite tired. He's been working all day. Sarah is very tired Shes had to working all moming.
- 12. 150 http: IIwww. hikmetsahineroom DR. HIKMET SAHINER s r An intensier (adverb of degree) makes the meaning weaker or stronger. Here are some more examples. SMALL DECREE (weaker) MEDIUM DEGREE LARGE DEGREE (stronger) a little late fairly unusual absolutely sure slightly complicated pretty good really ill rather nice completely mad extremely cold iv An adverb of degree (e. g. very) goes before an adjective (e. g. cold) or an adverb (e. g. quickly). ADVERB + ADJECTIVE ADVERB + ADVERB Its very cold today. The time passed quite quickly. Rita looked rather upset. We go on holiday fair1y soon. This dress is absolutely marvelous. United played extremely well. lntensifiers with Comparative and Superlative Adjective and Adverbs iv Before a comparative we can use a bit, a little, a lot, far, much, rather and slightly. I'm feeling a lot better today. These new trains go much faster. We were a lot more careful this time. He works a lot less carefully than the other jeweler in town. We like his work so much better. You'll get your watch back all the faster. iv The same process can be used to downplay the degree: The weather this week has been somewhat better. He approaches his schoolwork a little less industriously than his brother does.
- 13. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS http: //www. hikmetsahineroom 151 > And sometimes a set phrase, usually an informal noun phrase, is used forthis purpose: He arrived a whole lot sooner than we expected. iv If the intensifier very accompanies the superlative, a determiner is also required: She is wearing her very finest outt for the interview. They're doing the very best they can. iv Some lntensiers can describe a verb. They usually go in mid position (close to the verb). My foot is really hurting. Laura quite enjoys shopping. I rather like this cake. iv Some intensifiers go at the end of a sentence when they describe a verb. They are a bit, a little, a lot, awfully, much and terribly. Mark travels a lot. I'll open the window a little. The animals suffer terribly. iv Absolutely, completely and totally can go in mid position or at the end. We completely lost our way. We lost our way completely. I'm afraid I totally disagree. I'm afraid I disagree totally.
- 14. 152 http: llwww. hlkmetsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER | > Now look at these sentences. Positive: Ilike this town very much, NOT . - - . . Negative: I don't like this town very much, OR I don't like this town much. > In a positive statement we use very much. In a negative statement we can use either very much or much. QUITE AND RATHER > Quite meaning 'fair| y' > Quite usually means 'fair1y' or 'a medium amount. I feel quite hungry now. Repairing the machine is quite difcult. The talk was quite interesting. We were quite surprised at the result. > When we make a favorable comment, we usually say quite, not rather. The book was quite interesting. its quite warm now. It was quite nice walking through the park. > In unfavorable comments, we usually say rather, but quite is possible. The book was rather boring / quite boring. It was rather awkward / quite awkward taking my suitcase on the underground. > Rather in a favorable comment means to a surprising or unusual degree. its rather warm for October. (It isn't usually so warm. ) I didn't know David can cook. He's rather good at if. I expect Toms jokes were awful. ~ Actually they were rather funny.
- 15. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS http: //www. hikmetsahinercom 153 iv We can use rather with a comparative but not quite. The meal took rather longer than we expected. iv With some adjectives, quite means completely or totally. What you said is quite wrong. (= completely wrong) The idea is quite absurd. (= totally absurd) The situation is quite hopeless. iv Quite means completely with these adjectives: absurd, alone, amazing, awful, brilliant, certain, dead, different, dreadful, extraordinary, false, hopeless, horrible, impossible, perfect, ridiculous, right, sure, true, useless, wrong iv Compare the uses of quite. I'm quite tired. (= fairly) I'm quite exhausted. (= completely) The advice was quite useful. I got one or The advice was quite useless. if was two tips. absolutely no good at all.
- 16. 154 http: llwww. hlkmetsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER 1. So + Adjective (informal) "So" can be combined with adjectives to show extremes. This form is often used in exclamations. The music is so loud! I wish they would turn it down. The meal was so good! It was worth the money. 2. So + Adjective + that (formal) The above form can be combined with "that" to show extremes which lead to certain results. The "that" is optional in informal speech. The music is so loud (that) I can't sleep. The meal was so good (that) we decided to have dinner at the same restaurant again tonight. 3. So + Adverb (informal) "So" can be combined with adverbs to show extreme actions. This form is often used in exclamations. She spoke so quickly! She sounded like an auctioneer. He paints so well! I am sure he is going to become a famous artist. 4. so + Adverb + that (formal) The above form can be combined with "that" to show extreme actions which lead to certain results. The "that" is optional in informal speech. She spoke so quickly (that) I couldn't understand her. He paints so well (that) they offered him a scholarship at an art school in Paris.
- 17. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS http: //www. hikmetsahinercom 155 5. So + Many I Few + Plural Noun (informal) "So" can be combined with "many" or "few" plus a plural noun to show extremes in amount. This form is oen used in exclamations. I never knew you had so many brothers! She has so few friends! It's really quite sad. 6. So + Many I Few + Plural Noun + that (formal) The above form can be combined with "that" to show extremes in amount which lead to certain results. The "that is optional in informal speech. I never knew you had so many brothers (that) you had to share a bedroom. She has so few friends (that) she rarely gets out of the house. 7. So + Much I Little + Noncountable Noun (informal) "So" can be combined with "much" or 'little'' plus a noncountable noun to show extremes in amount. This form is often used in exclamations. Jake earns so much money! And he still has trouble paying the rent. They have so little food! We need to do something to help them. 8. So + Much I Little + Noncountable Noun + that (formal) The above form can be combined with "that" to show extremes in amount which lead to certain results. The "that" is optional in informal speech. Jake earns so much money (that) he has lost all sense of what a dollar is worth. They have so little food (that) they are starving to death.
- 18. 156 http: llwww. hikmelsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER 9. 80+ Much I Little I Often I Rarely (informal) "So" can be combined with words like "much, " "little, " "often" or "rarely" to describe how much or how often someone does an action . This form is often used in exclamations. Earl drinks so much! It's not good for his health. My sister visits us so rarely! I really miss her. 10. So+ Much I Little I Often I Rarely +that (formal) The above form can be combined with "that" to show the results of extreme actions. The "that" is optional in informal speech. Earl drinks so much (that) it is starting to interfere with his work. My sister visits us so rarely (that) my kids wouldn't even recognize her. 11. Such + Adjective + Noun (informal) "Such" can be combined with an adjective and a noun to show extremes. This form is often used in exclamations. Don has such a big house! I think it's a little ridiculous. Shelly has such beautiful eyes! I have never seen that shade of blue before. 12. Such + Adjective + Noun (formal) The above form can be combined with "that" to show extremes which lead to certain results. The "that" is optional in informal speech. Don has such a big house (that) I actually got lost on the way to the bathroom. Shelly has such beautiful eyes (that) she got a job as a make-up model. iv NOTE: Rememberthat without the noun you need to use "so. "
- 19. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS http: //www. hikmetsahineroom 157 SUCH + BEAUTIFUL EYES + THAT SO + BEAUTIFUL + THAT 13. Such + Noun (This type of. ..) "Such" can also mean "this type of. .. or "that type of. .." The archeologist had never seen such writing before he discovered the tablet. (this / that type of writing) She usually doesn't receive such criticism. (this / that kind of criticism) Frank has never made such mistakes before. (these / those kinds of mistakes)
- 20. 158 httpzllwwwhlkmetsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER LECTURE EXERCISES Exercise 1. Choose the right word. 1. I don't like horror lms. I thinkthey are (frightening / frightened) and (boring I bored). 2. Don't look so (surprising I surprised). Of course, it war a (surprising I surprised) decision but we had no other out. 3. It was a (tiring / tired) journey. lwish I hadn't it. lfeel completely (exhausting! exhausted) after it. 4. The football match was (disappointing Idisappointed). Our team lost the game and we left the stadium qtiite (disappointing I disappointed). 5. He can't remember his pupils names. It seemed funny at rst, but now it is rather (embarrassing I embarrassed). 6. So far as Mrs. Brown was concerned she did not seem to be in the least (embarrassing I embarrassed). 7. He did not come and she looked rather (worrying I worried). 8. The rise in crime is (depressing I depressed). 9. The pictures made a (depressing I depressed) impression on him. 10. She is not (satisfying I satised) with her position. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences with the words from the box using the proper degree. busy few famous convenient well-read kind-hearted straight hot 1. She is easy to deal with. I think she is _ than her sister. 2.1 suppose the works of this artist are __ abroad than in his country. 3. This armchair is_of all. 4. He knows a lot. He is_ than his schoolmates. 5. Let's take this path. It's _. 6. The street you live in is _ than mine. 7. Days are getting _in July. 8. He made _ mistakes in his class.
- 21. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS httpillwww. hikmetsahinercom 159 Exercise 3. Match the adjectives on the left with their denitions on the right. 1) further a) after some time 2) farther b) the second of two things or persons already mentioned 3) last c) the smallest 4) latter d) coming immediately after, in space or in order 5) elder e) additional 6) nearer f) at a greater distance 7) next g) least good 8) least h) coming after all others in time or order 9) later i) senior of members of the family 10) worst j) closer Exercise 4. Open the brackets and use the comparative form of the adjectives and adverbs. 1. This exercise is (simple) than that one. 2. Why are you talking? Please be (quiet). 3. New districts of Moscow are (beautiful) than the old ones. 4. He is (clever) than his brother. 5. My (old) sister is 4 years (old) than me. 6. There are (many) customers on Saturdays than on weekdays. 7. Are expensive things (good) than cheap ones? 8. Is English grammar (difficult) than Russian grammar? 9. He has made (few) mistakes than yesterday. 10. She had to give us (far) information though she didn't want to. 11. Students from Group 3 are (industrious) than those from Group 1. 12. Have you met our new colleagues, Mr Brown, and Mr. Green? The former is an excellent economist, (late) is a good lawyer. 13. They have got down to business without any (far) delay. 14. This matter is (urgent) than that one. 15. He plays tennis (bad) than she. 16. He's got a still (old) edition ef this book. 17. Is there a (late) train passing here? 18. (far) details will be given tomorrow. 19. Sparrows are (conurrob) than any other birds. 20. Motor-cycles are (noisy) than cars, aren't they?
- 22. 160 http: IIwww. hikmelsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER Exercise 5. Choose the right answer. 1. Martin was the (more talented I most talented) ofthe two brothers. 2. Ofthe three shirts I like the blue one (better! best). 3. My dog is the (prettier! prettiest) of the two. 4. This summary is the (better! best) of the two presented. 5. There are nine planets in our solar system and Pluto is the (farther/ farthest). 6. Mary is the (tallest! taller) ofthe two girls. 7. The boss likes my plan (better! best) of the two. 8. This is the (less difcult! least difcult) ofthe four cases. 9. This knife is the (sharpest! sharper) of the two. 10. Mother was the (more I most) beautiful of seven daughters. Exercise 6. Make up sentences according to the example. Example: life / beeoming / hard Life is becoming harder and harder. life / becoming / difcult Life is becoming more and more difcult. 1) people I living I long 2) going abroad I becoming I popular 3) crime I becoming I common 4) the light in the rooms! becoming / dim 5) computers I becoming I expensive 6) factories I employing / few I workers 7) his heart I beating I hard 8) Moscow I becoming I beautiful 9) his voice I becoming / weak 10) nights- in winter! becoming I long Exercise 7. Give the superlative form of the adjectives in brackets. . The Pan-American Highway is (long) road in the world. . The Beatles were (successful) pop group. . Japan has (crowded) railways in the world. . This is our (old) national airline. . The Chrysler Building was once (tall) in the world. . is English (useful) language to learn? . This is one of (expensive) stores in the city. . The Queen must be (rich) woman in the world. lO'JUI-h(.0lJA
- 23. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS httpillwww. hikmetsahinercom 161 9. Unfortunately, I haven't heard (late) news. I think it was very interesting. 10. Is the Mona Lisa (valuable) painting in the world? 11. His house is (far) in the street. 12. February is (snowy) and (cold) month ofthe year here. 13. (dangerous) spider is the black widow, whose bite can kill a man in a few minutes. 14. The world's (expensive) perfume costs $550 per bottle. 15. (deep) part of the Pacic Ocean is 11 kilometres below the sea| eve| . 16. I wonder what his (near) step is going to be. 17. Who are (old) members of the club? 18. It was (late) thing I expected of him. 19. The diamond is (hard) mineral in the world. 20. His house is (far) in our street. Exercise 8. Put the adverbs in the right place. Example: These books are old (very). These books are very old. 1. I hate travelling by air (really). 2. She trusted him (entirely). 3. I understand your situation (fully). 4. It is not his fault. He did not want it to happen (at all). 5. The rain spoiled my day (completely). 6. We did the job quickly (fairly). 7. Though he tried to persuade her, she believed his story (hard, half). 8. He believes that he is right (rmly). 9. The prices are cheap at the hotel (reasonably). 10. I was tired to eat (too, even). Exercise 9. For each situation put in very, quite or a bit. (Sometimes you may have two variants. ) Example: Buses run every half an hour there. Buses run _ frequently. Buses run quite / very frequently. 1. I couldn't sleep. There was __ a lot of noise from the disco. 2. There was heavy trafc on the road. The road was_ busy. 3. It was only a minute ortwo after the scheduled time when the train came. The train was _ late. 4. Someone paid a great deal of money forthe house. The house was _ expensive. 5. There were one or two small traces of mud on the boots. The boots were _ dirty.
- 24. 162 http: IIwww. hikmelsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER 6. We had reasonable weather. It wasn't _ marvellous, but it didn't rain. The weather was _ good. 7. That music is _ too loud. 8. I _ like my newjob. It's very interesting and better paid than the previous one. 9. They have _ a lot of business with our company in Belgium. 10. She was not _ satisfied with her new We. There was something _disappointing but she could not understand what. Exercise 10. Fill in the blanks with so or such. 1. The weather was _ nasty that she decided to stay at home. 2. He drove at_ a high speed that I got frightened. 3. The show was _ amusing that we couldn't help laughing. 4. He was _ shocked that he couldn't say a word. 5. There were _ few participants present that the meeting was cancelled. 6. The girl looked __ sick that the mother called the doctor in. 7. The programme was _ entertaining that nobody wanted to miss it. 8. They made _ brilliant reports that the audience burst out applauding. 9. There were _ many interesting books that he did not know which to choose. 10. I have been studying for_ a long time that I have got a headache now. Exercise 11. Complete the following sentences with the adverbs in the comparative and superlative forms. (You can use the word only once). carefully easily frequently high late long loud smartly near quickly fast well Example: I was afraid to go _ than halrvay up the tower. I was afraid to go higher than halfway up the tower. 1. I could have found the place _ ifl had had a map. 2. We were tired and we all envied Mary, for she lived _. 3. I like this picture _ of all. 4. Why are you wearing these old jeans? You might have dressed _. 5. You needn't go away yet. You can stay a bit _. 6. To get to London by nine, we can't leave _ than seven. It takes two hours. 7. There are a lot of robberies in our city. They happen _ nowadays than before. 8. Do it again _ and you won't make so many mistakes. 9. We can't hear you well. Could you speak a bit _? 10. We all ran pretty fast, but Andrew ran _ than me, and Sam ran _.
- 25. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS httpillwww. hikmetsahinercom 163 Exercise 12. Open the brackets and give the comparative or superlative degree of the following adjectives and adverbs. . That is (incredible) story I have ever heard. . It is not always (bright) students who do well in tests. . Terylene shirts are (hard) wearing, but cotton shirts are much (comfortable). . Which is (deep), Lake Michigan or Lake Superior? . She is far (self-confident) than she used to be. . (tall) man among the guests is a basketball player. . I like both of them, but I think Kate is (easy) to talk to. . Most people are (well off) than their parents used to be. . She has a lot to be thankful for; but (sad) thing of all is that she does not realize it. 10. I want to buy a car (powerful) one you have. 11. You look a lot (sad) than you did last time I saw you. 12. There is nothing (irritating) than locking yourself out of your own house. 13. Both roads lead to the city centre, but the left-hand one is probably a bit (short) and (direct). 14. As I get (old), I notice the policemen seem to be getting (young). 15. The boys in our school are much (good-looking) and a lot (good) at football than the boys m other schools in the town. Exercise 13. Open the brackets and give the correct forms of the comparative constructions. Example: (Much) you read, (well) you will know English. The more you read, the better you will know English. U'I-l>I. A>l)A . (Interesting) the book is, (fast) you read it. . (Early) you come, (quickly) we finish the work. . (Hot) the weather is, (bad) I feel. . (Soon) he takes the medicine, (well) he will feel. . (Little) she ate, (angry) she was. . (Long) the children saw the film, (frightened) they felt. . (Late) you come, (little) you will sleep. . (Much) you study, (clever) you will become. . (Cold) the winter is, (hot) the summer will be. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. (Near) you come up, (well) you will see the picture.
- 26. 164 http: IIwww. hikmelsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER Exercise 14. Complete the sentences using the constructions as as or not so as / not as as. Choose the one from the box. high poor beautiful important tall crowded fast expensive big lazy 1.1 know that yourjob is important, but myjob is important too. Myjob is _. 2. The bicycle is fast, but the car is faster. The bicycle is _. 3. Her knowledge is poor, but he knows a bit more. His knowledge is _. 4. He is lazy, but his brother is lazy too. He is _. 5. Their furniture costs $700, and ours is $870. Theirfurniture is _. 6. France is big. Belgium is not a big country. Belgium is _. 7. Her wages are $200 a week, and mine are $150. My wages are _. 8. She is beautiful, but I like her sister better. lthink, she is _. 9. He is tall, but I am taller. He is _. 10. Tverskaya and Arbat are crowded streets. Tverskaya street is _. Exercise 15. Complete the sentences with than or as. .. as or the same as. 1. Everybody was shocked. Nobody was more shocked _ Nick. 2. I wish you were _ pretty _ your mother. 3. He is _ age _ my brother. 4. I earn _ much money _ he does. But she earns more _ we both. 5. I ordered _ drink : he did. 6. Your car is much more powerful _ mine, bat my small car is _ expensive _ yours. 7. I spent _ much money _ he did. But I didn't spend _ sum : Mary did. I spent much less money _she. 8. Petrol is more expensive now _ a few years ago. 9. Prices are not _ in the 19905. 10. Paris is __ exciting _ London. Exercise 16. A. Make up sentences accordin to the example. Example: He is (tvvlce / old) she is. He is tvvlce as old as she is. 1. He is not (half! clever) I thought. 2. It took her (three times I long) she expected. 3. She is not going to marry a man who is (twice I old) she is. 4. He can lift a box (three times I heavy) that one. 5. The new stadium is (several times I large) the old one.
- 27. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS httpillwww. hikmetsahiner. oom 165 6. He does it (two times! quickly) she does. 7. Petrol is (several times I expensive) it was two years ago. 8. Her new at is (three times! large) her old one. 9. Grapes in autumn are (several times! cheap) they are in winter. 10. He spends (twice I much) we do. B Change the sentences according to the example. Example: This book costs 4 dollars and that one costs 2 dollars. This book costs twice as much as that one. 1. Nick has 8 discs and I have 24 discs. 2. This TV model costs $700 and that one $350. 3. It took me 40 minutes and her 10 minutes to get there. 4. I earn $2000 dollars and she earns $1000. 5. This room is 12m2 and that one is 24. Exercise 17. Make up sentences according to the example. Example: No sooner he (arrive) home _ he fell ill. No sooner had he arrived home than he fell ill. 2. Hardly he (arrive) home _ he wanted to leave. Hardly had he arrived home when he wanted to leave. . No sooner she (receive) the money __ she went shopping. . No sooner he (open) the door_ he felt the smell of gas. . Hardly they (come) into the house _ the rain started. . No sooner he (eat) the first course _ the telephone rang. . Hardly she (knock) at the door _ he opened it. . Hardly the sun (rise) _ they started off. . No sooner he (read) the newspaper article _ he phoned her. . Hardly she (buy) a car _ she got into an accident. . No sooner he (look) at the title _ he realized that it was the book he had wanted for such a long time. 10. Hardly the meeting (begin) _the participants decided to re-elect the committee.
- 28. 166 http: IIwww. hikmelsahiner. com DR. HIKMET SAHINER Exercise 18. Fill in the blanks with the words from the box. straig ht . They had to dig_ to get oil. . His position was uncertain. . This is the _ way to do it. . When I came he was _ asleep. . Please keep __ to the subject. . He was walking _. . His _ ambitions are well known to everybody. . He dived _ into the water and soon emerged at the opposite side of the river. . The baby is as _ as a flower. 10. I saw him at a _ distance. 11. He had to study _ to be the first. 12. He is a _ person to speak to. 13. We can't expect a _ answer from him. 14. Take it _! Everything will be all right. 15. They live _ around the corner. 16. The engine is _ to operate. 17. You shouldn't speak _ about people. 18. This athlete can jump _. 19. Tell me _ what you think. 20. She looks quite_. Exercise 19. Choose the appropriate adverb. 1. He lives quite (nearly! near). 2. You've come too (lately I late). 3. The mechanic examined the damaged car (closely I close). 4. It is (prettily! pretty) difcult to speak to her. 5. We have seen very little of you (lately! late). 6. She is always (prettily! pretty) dressed. 7. He (nearly I near) seized the rail. 8. I used to work (hardly I hard) to get everything I have got now. lJA
- 29. ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR YDS http: //www. hikmetsahineroom 167 9. His suggestion seemed (highly I high) improbable to us. 10. Her house stood (closely I close) to the river. 11. The wind was blowing so (hardly I hard) that I could (hardly I hard) walk. 12. The actress (justly Ijust) deserved the prize. 13. The plane flew (highly! high), we could (hardly! hard) see it. 14. (Shortly I Short) after graduating I moved to the capital. 15. I could see the house door which was (widely Iwide) open. Exercise 20. Choose the appropriate word. 1. In spite of the coming danger he remained (calm I calmly). 2. Though the dish smelt (good / well), he refused to eat saying he was not hungry. She looked at me (angry I angrily) and told me to leave the room. She spends a lot of money on her clothes but they always look (cheap I cheaply). Have you seen him? Yes, he looks (good / well) but he says he feels (bad I badly). His cough sounds (terrible I terribly). He should see a doctor. Be (quiet I quietly). Stop talking, behave yourselves. The situation looks (bad I badly). We must do something. . He seemed to me a bit (strange I strangely) today. 10. The sh tastes (awful I awfully). I won't eat it. 11. He looked (good / well) in his new suit. Exercise 21. Choose the correct answer. 1. Please give me _ copy of the magazine. P. .. ~"': . a) other b) another c) the other d) others 2. I see only five boys here. Where are _ ones? a) another b) others c) the others d) the other 3. There were seven people on the beach; two of them were bathing, _ were playing volleyball. a) the others b) another c) others d) other 4. I can give you only a small dictionary, I have got no _. a) the other b) another c) other d) the others
- 30. 168 http: !!www. hikmetsahineroom DR. HIKMET SAHINER 5. Two of their guests left rather early, _ stayed till midnight. a) the other b) another c) the others d) other 6. Well, kid, _ fifty yards and you will be at home. a) another b) other 0) the other d) others 7. There have been two oranges on the table. One is . here, and where is _? a) another b) the other c) others d) other 8. I'm going to stay here for_ few days. a) the other b) others c) the others d) another 9. I think you should choose _ colour. This one is too dark. a) other b) another 0) the other d) others 10. Why is he so selfish? He never thinks about _. a) other b) the other 0) others d) the others