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Slide 2 WWII EAST MEETS WEST IVAN MEETS GI JOE X Slide 3 THE CHANGING FACE OF CANADA SUBURBS/ AUTOMOBILE 1950s WOMEN (Stay-at-home, femininity, resentment) Read When He Comes Home From Work TEEN CULTURE (Boomers, Guides/Scouts, Educated, Rockers/Elvis - No hip shots), TV / CONSUMERS (Ed Sullivan, Mickey, Roy Rogers) (Appliances, Barbie, Sugar Cereals) MASSEY COMMISSION Protect Can.Identity (CRTC, CBC, NFB) IMMIGRATION - 1945-60 = 2 MILLION 1956 HUNGARIAN REV. - 37 000 Slide 4 THE IRON CURTAIN Compare NATO & the Warsaw Pact to the Iron Curtain Slide 5 STATE OF THE WORLD As a nation did not exist. Sectioned off A crushed nation, looking to rebuild. Was in a civil war, with Mao rising up Occupied by America. Future unknown. A battered nation looking For identity. (Ex. Vietnam) In serious decline & as an Empire, she was collapsing. In turmoil heading to independence EASTERN EUROPE Had been a major Battlefield. Rebuilding Slide 6 USSR Russia was spent; it would have lost war if not for USA/Lend Lease. Became a military giant, but economically poor. Did not have the A-Bomb until 1949. Used its new found Empire to develop resources. Controlled Eastern European Nations and led them into Communism. ABSOLUTE CONFORMITY - Shot or imprisoned POWs - Anti-Semitism for fear of new Israel influencing Jews. - Dismissed WW II heroes. - Censorship. - Eliminated rivals Slide 7 Became the true World Superpower. Worlds strongest military. USA The only nation to come out of war better-off than it went in. Looked upon to lead the Democratic Nations. New World Order to benefit Capitalism. The American perception of immortality would Last right up until Korea & then further lowered Her self esteem in Vietnam. (The Vietnam Syndrome ) TrumanEisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Roosevelt Worlds Manufacturing Greatest exporter of goods Slide 8 THE COLD WAR THE BIPOLAR WORLD THE ISSUES Soviet Union vs. USA East vs. West Communism vs. Capitalism Govt Control vs. Private Enterprise. No Opposition vs. Basic Freedoms. Soviet Expansion (E. Europe) = American Suspicion. Vice-versa Soviets feared US expansion. After WW II, a war of propaganda and fear materialized between the USA and the Soviet Union. No shots were fired but the two superpowers stockpiled nuclear weapons. Did Nukes create peace? Slide 9 KEY COLD WAR TERMS Domino Theory If one country falls to Comm..the rest will. Satellite States Soviet control of its Eastern States. Iron Curtain Separates E. Europe (Commi) from W, Europe (Democracy) National Security Council Advised US president on defence issues. Central Intelligence Agency CIA American espionage agency to find any Threats to the US. (Today terrorists) Slide 10 The Cold War 1945- 1991 Slide 11 Iron Curtain A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West. ALLIED CONTROL COUNCIL Implemented to overlook this Arrangement. Note USSR & France = Reparations Slide 12 Slide 13 TRUMAN DOCTRINE (Political) Truman wanted to support Free People = ANTI-COMMUNISTS Political, economic, & military aid To friends of the USA Americas Line In The Sand! Ex. Greece/Turkey = $$ to bail out so no need to turn to USSR. ($400 Million) MARSHALL PLAN (Economic) The economic response to the threat of communism. Even the USSR inquired but couldnt meet the freedom requirements. $28 Billion spent Most from USA Communist take-over in 1948 (Czech.) gave the Marshall Plan credibility. Two halves of the same walnut? Totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples undermine. the security of the US Go Team!! Want $$$? Slide 14 BERLIN Slide 15 BERLIN (Truman Doctrine @ Work!!) 1945 - After WW II Germany was divided between East & West. - Berlin = also divided between East & West - democratic city within E. Germany 1948 Berlin Airlift. U.S. airlifted supplies. - US $ & new democratic govt broke Yalta agreement. => Stalin was mad. 1. New Currency 2. B-29s in Britain) 1961 - East Germans built the Berlin Wall - Wall of Shame- to keep fascism out. OR in????? 1990 Berlin Wall crumbles. We are staying, period. Soviets What happens in Berlin happens in Europe Slide 16 WESTERN RESPONSES TO THE COLD WAR NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Org.) (1949) US, Canadian, & Western Europe defence organization. Attack one Attack all!! Soviets responded with The Warsaw Pact (1951 ). St. Laurent pushed for Canadas middle power involvement. Canada adapted defence to align with NATO. Smart??? Independence??? U.S. Marshal Plan $ to help poor European Nations Slide 17 DUCK & COVER DUCK & COVER VIDEO COLD WAR AT HOME Gouzenkos story sparked fear: - Bomb Shelters - Civil Defence Plans - Duck & Cover campaigns - The Red Mennace - McCarthys Witch-hunts (USA) - Can. refused to outlaw Communism. Igor Gouzenko Russian spy who came forward to notify authorities no one believed him at first. Atomic secrets. 1949 USSR Gets A-Bomb Alger Hiss Russian Spy in USA???? Klaus Fuchs Physicist selling secrets to USSR from Britain Slide 18 SOCIAL CONFLICTS Red Dawn Slide 19 WESTERN RESPONSES (cont.) DEW (Distant Early Warning Sign) A joint system of radar was put in place to warn/protect N. Amer. from attack. - Long range bombers put N. America at risk. NORAD (North American Aerospace Defence Command) Defienbaker committed to a joined US/Can. fighter force, missile bases, & air defence. NORAD - Today US military in Can. caused many Canadians alarm. Slide 20 PLANNING FOR PEACE THE UNITED NATIONS (UN) Collective Security - Formed after WW II to keep peace Two bodies: General Assembly (all members) Security Council. (Super Powers) The Security Councils veto - prevented effectiveness - the Soviets vetoed 75 of the 78 times. The UN also pledged to abolish disease, famine & help improve human rights. (WHO, UNICEF, IMO) Canada involved in almost every UN operation since 1956. League of Nations Approximately 200 Member States (192) Slide 21 THE KOREAN WAR 1950-1953 NORTH KOREA -Soviets liberated the North from Japanese rule. North invades South. North captures everything North of Pusan. => UN helps South!! Why??? Veto?? SOUTH KOREA - USA liberated South from Japanese Rule. -Supported corrupt democratic govt (Syngman Rhee) -Truman declares the Truman Doctrine applies in Asia. 38 th Parallel Tensions rose but USA & USSR did little to help Japan Slide 22 THE KOREAN CONFLICT -UN was able to help south because of USSR boycott due to no Communist Chinese seat) - Although UN sanctioned = Led by USA. -MacArthur regained S. & kept going. Trumans fears: 1. China. 2. Russian retaliation in Europe. China Enters: Push Amer. back past the 38 th. - Truman/MacArthur talk Nukes. - Truman & Atlee reconsider. Truman / MacArthur Split!! - Truman containment / MacArthur Nukes - Truman fires MacArthur (USA loves MacA. ) Wounded in action story. Gen. MacArthur Canadas Forgotten War Note Truman = Liberation vs. Containment?? Slide 23 KOREA REMAINS SPLIT -1952 Dwight Eisenhower became US president. -1953 = Ceasefire Border remains 38 th Parallel. Note Anti-Communist John Foster Dulles threatened China with Nukes if POWs not returned. - Peace talks dragged on for years. STAY TUNED => Vietnam 1960s. Eventually Americans gave into containment. Other Alliances to promote containment include: - NATO W. Europe / N. America - OAS Latin Amer. / USA - ANZUS New Zealand / Aussies / USA - SEATO S. East Asia - CENTO USA / Mid. East Kim Jong Un KOREA 2012 Slide 24 THE WARSAW PACT MALENKOV Replaced Stalin Until 1955 KHRUSHCHEV Took over & Started De-Stalinization (1955-64) STALIN Died in 1953 DE-STALINIZATION -Khrushchev relaxed relations with the Soviet satellite states. -Stalin = Harsh measures / Complete Conformity - Brought Satellites into THE WARSAW PACT (alliance vs. dictatorship) Slide 25 PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE Khrushchev (1956) openly stated USSR to globally compete with USA USA responded with Eisenhower Doctrine Force in Mid East against Communism Was Peaceful Co-existence meant to be aggressive or peaceful? Aggressive -USSR broke Baghdad Pact (CENTO) sold arms to Czechs & Egyptians. -Influence/Force in Middle East -Visited friendlies; India, Afghan - Burma. -Cuban Missile Crisis (More to come) -Khrushchevs speech We will bury you Peaceful -Moved away from stand-offs like Korea & Berlin airlift (1948). -Space race not aggressive?? -Visited USA to smooth differences. - Caused Sino-Soviet split (China/Russian Split) -Would be the start of Dtente (More to Come) 1961 = Berlin Wall??? Slide 26 SUEZ CANAL CRISIS (1956) -Nasser takes power & accepts Communist arms. - West pulls dam $$$. - Nasser took over Canal. - Brt., Fr., Israel = Operation Musketeer - Soviets defended Egypt (Bomb??). - USA angry & caught in Middle - PM Pearson initiated UN peacekeeping. Egypt and the Suez Canal PM Pearson awarded Nobel Peace Prize THE KHRUSHCHEV ERA Slide 27 ATTEMPTS AT BREAKING SOVIET DOMINANCE POLAND 1956 -Strikers had enough & demanded more freedoms. -Gomulka (Jailed by Stalin) put in power. -Stayed part of Commi Bloc but eased restrictions. 1. De-collectivized agriculture 2. Allowed Catholicism PRAGUE 1968 NOTE - Czech. was democratic after WWI. In 1968, Dubcek replaced Stalinist Novotny. Socialism with a Human Face Freedoms with socialism (travel/elections/media) Romania was tempted to follow as well. Romanias Movt threatened splitting Warsaw Pact!!! Soviets invaded => Dubcek out => Husak In / Back to old ways Breshnev Doctrine (Soviet president ) Use force to protect Socialism HUNGARY 1956 -Harsh Communist Rakosi out & once imprisoned Nagy in. - Pressured by the people he made anti- Soviet demands & wanted out of the Warsaw Pact. -Soviet tanks rolled in (30,000 dead). -Nagy out & Pro-Soviet Kadar in. -USA not welcome in Soviet Backyard. Gomulka Nagy Dubcek E. Bloc Nations Coming Soon 1989 Polan