wroxeter conservation management plan
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DESCRIPTIONWroxeter Conservation Management PlanRoman city in the West Midlands of England.ROGER WHITE, JENNY MARRIOTT and MALCOLM REID JULY 2009; REVISED JULY 2010 for English Heritage.
WROXETER ROMAN CITY, SHROPSHIRE: CONSERVATION PLAN
ROGER WHITE, JENNY MARRIOTT and MALCOLM REID JULY 2009; REVISED JULY 2010
List of Acronyms v
List of Figures vi
List of Heritage Assets by Heritage Asset Type and a guide to their use ix
Key to HLC Map ( Figure 2.27) xii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: BREATHING LIFE INTO WROXETER 1
CHAPTER 1. THE NEED FOR A CONSERVATION PLAN 2
1. The aims and objectives of the Wroxeter Conservation Plan 2
CHAPTER 2. CHARACTERISING THE DEFINED AREA 6
2.1 Definition of the study area 6
2.2 Ownership and current land use 6
2.3 Physical Character of the defined area 6
2.4 Vegetation and Ecology 10
2.5 Heritage 12
2.5.1 Initial investigations 12
2.5.2. Wroxeter discovered 13
2.5.3 The State intervenes 14
2.5.4 Buildings and other surveys 16
2.5.6 Chronological summary of development 21
CHAPTER 3. WHY WROXETER MATTERS: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DEFINED AREA
CHAPTER 4. MANAGING WROXETER TODAY: CURRENT ISSUES AND RELATIONSHIP TO NATIONAL AND LOCAL POLICIES
4.1 Towards a new land management process 41
4.2 Building management 44
4.3 Opportunities/constraints within the policy framework for retaining significance and realising potential
4.4 Outcomes from the consultation process 49
4.4 Consideration of an extension to statutory protection for parts of the site 49
CHAPTER 5: MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS 50
Appendix 1: List of sources used in compiling the Conservation Plan 57
Appendix 2: Consultation Process 58
Appendix 3: Wroxeter Visitor Survey, March-April 2009 (data supplied by Kate Churchill). Taken from 73 responses (198 individuals)
Appendix 4: DCMS Listings for Historic Buildings in Wroxeter study area (Source: Heritage Gateway)
Appendix 5: List of the main national, regional and local policy documents relating to cultural/historic environment/biodiversity matters:
Appendix 6: Current Management Issues relating to the Monument 64
Acknowledgements The authors are extremely grateful to everyone who has helped in the compilation of this report. Of key importance of course were the English Heritage staff, notably Heather Sebire, William Du Croz and Tony Fleming who commissioned and monitored the report through its many and varied drafts, responding at all times with courtesy and rapidity. Others in the organisation who supplied useful detail about the functioning of the site and their role in running it were Nola and Steve Ames, Mark Badger, Jo Beach, Heather Bird, Emma Carver, Graham Deacon, Tim Johnson, Bill Klemperer, Jeremy Lake, Sara Lunt, Russell Man, Cameron Moffett, Pete Wilson and Richard Zeizer. In addition to the English Heritage staff we received much co-operation from individuals within other organisations with an interest in Wroxeter, not least Jeremy Milln and Bob Thurston of the National Trust, Jez Bretherton of English Nature and Michael Eaton, Hugh Hannaford, Emma-Kate Lanyon, Nigel Nixon, Penny Ward, Andy Wigley, Mary White, Fran Yaroll and Liz Young of Shropshire Council. From the local community we would like to thank especially Brian Nelson (Wroxeter & Uppington PC), Nigel Baker, Ed Hall (Wroxeter Hotel), The Millington Family and Richard Jones-Perrott and Andrew Lewis of the Raby Estate. James Lawson, Peter Kienzle, Peter Wade-Martins and Hilary Cool provided academic support and information on aspects of Wroxeters past while Kate Churchill took on the task of carrying out a visitor survey. Finally at Birmingham Archaeology Roger White would especially like to acknowledge the support of their Finance Manager Caroline Raynor and chief illustrator, Nigel Dodds, who supplied the necessary maps.
List of acronyms AMP Asset Management Plan ARC Archaeological Resource Centre BAR Buildings at Risk BTCV British Trust for Conservation Volunteers CCT Churches Conservation Trust CMP Conservation Management Plan CP Conservation Plan CSS Countryside Stewardship Scheme DCMS Department of Media, Culture and Sport DEFRA Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs DoE Department of Environment EH English Heritage ELS Entry Level Scheme ESA Environmental Stewardship Agreement GI Green Infrastructure HAR Heritage at Risk HLC Historic Landscape Character/Characterisation HLF Heritage Lottery Fund HLS Higher Level Scheme HPA Heritage Partnership Agreement LDF Local Development Framework NT National Trust SC Shropshire Council WHP Wroxeter Hinterland Project WRC Wroxeter Roman City
List of Figures Executive summary The Old Work 1.1 Location of Wroxeter Village and the Roman Town of Viroconium Cornoviorum
1.2 Viroconium Roman Town and the village of Wroxeter: scheduled area.
2.1: Land ownership and land management survey at WRC (Source: White 1976). The shaded strip of land on the east side of the site, from south of the Bell Brook to the B4380, has since been acquired by English Heritage.
2.2: Soils within a 1km radius of WRC (outlined) and the course of the River Severn. The radius of the catchment is calculated from the outer limits of the town.
2.3: Soils groups within a 5km radius of WRC (outlined), with the course of the river Severn.
2.4: HAN218, the river cliff and floodplain from north of The Cottage. 2.5: Stream bank below Mount Pleasant buildings.
2.6: Bell Brook valley, eastern half from east.
2.7: Aerial view of Bell Brook valley, western half from SE.
2.8: Sycamore plantation HAN216 from the west. Note ivy growth on tree boles and on boundary wall HAN408 in the foreground.
2.9: Copse and scrub north of Bell Brook at western entrance to town.
2.10: HAN600, a black mulberry (Morus nigra) in the field opposite the Wroxeter Hotel. Note protective fencing.
2.11: Leylandii hedge flanking the holloway to the ford (HAN411) at The Boathouse (opposite the Church of St Andrew).
2.12: Aerofilms view of Wroxeter Baths, 1929 (NMR AFL03 25 28868).
2.13: Dr Arnold Baker (rear cockpit) on another Wroxeter flight.
2.14: Wroxeter aqueduct (HAN557) photographed by Dr Graham Webster before its destruction.
2:15: The gradiometry survey of WRC produced collaboratively by GSB Prospection and English Heritage.
2.16: The north side of St Andrews, Wroxeter (HAN111). 2.17: The gates of St Andrews with re-used Roman columns (HAN120). 2.18: The Grange and its gazebo, HAN112 & 113 (right). 2.19: Glebe Cottage HAN115. 2.20: The Old Post Office HAN113. 2.21: The Old School House HAN114. 2.22: Wroxeter Hotel HAN110. 2.23: Mount Pleasant Cottages HAN117.
2.24: HAN100,The former Smithy (latterly the Post Office) at the Wroxeter crossroads. 2.25: HAN104, 1 & 2 The Ruins. A back-to-back cottage built for Raby Estate tenants.
Detached pig sties to right. 2.26: HAN101, Wroxeter Farm, a fine model farm of 1850-1880. 2.27: Historic Landscape Character Assessment for WRC and environs Shropshire
Council courtesy of Dr Andy Wigley. (Key at end of list of illustrations)
2.28: John Rocques map of Wroxeter produced in 1746 (SA 6900/1).
2.29:The bank of the River Severn at Wroxeter with waterlogged tree-stumps in gravel (foreground).
2.30: The cliff lane at Wroxeter (HAN407), suggested by Bassett (1990) to be pre-Roman in date.
2.31: The suggested developed of WRC, from fortress (top left) to Brittonic town (bottom right). Source: White & Barker 1998.
2.32: The site of Wroxeters Medieval manor house (HAN306), viewed from the church tower.
2.33: The green lane (HAN402) leading to Wroxeters former east gate showing the reverse S shape imposed during the middle ages.
3.1: The Old Work and the baths (HAN118 and 119) under snow. 3.2: WRCs defences (HAN305), behind Glebe Cottage. 3.3: The Breidden from Wroxeter with Atcham village (foreground).
3.4: Lawley and Caer Caradoc from Wroxeter.
3.5: The cropmarks around Norton Farm (HAN556) as plotted by RCHME [English Heritage].
3.6: The Forum Inscription, Rowleys House Museum. Dated to AD 129-130 it is acknowledged as the finest Roman Inscription in Britain.
3.7: WRC from the Wrekin. The white Wroxeter Hotel can clearly be seen immediately above the rape field in the centre ground.
3.8: Thomas Girtins watercolour of the North side of the Old Work with Wroxeter Church framed in the doorway. The pond in the foreground has been transposed from the other side of the wall since a contemporary watercolour shows the north field under the plough.
3.9: Stereoscopic souvenir photograph of Wrights excavations, 1859. Note 1 & 2 The Ruins visible behind the spoil heap.
3.10: Thomas Prytharchs The Fall of Uriconium (ca.1920) English Heritage, Kenilworth Castle
3.11: The Wroxeter Mirror. A 30 troy oz. silver mirror, one of the finest examples surviving from the ancient world.
3.12: Amde Forestiers reconstruction of Wroxeter Forum.
3.13: Alan Sorrells reconstruction of the Bushe-Fox buildings.
3.14: School children reconstruct the columns of the baths basilica.
3.15: Fran Yarroll of Shropshire Museum Service dressing school children in Roman costume.
3.16: Volunteers collecting resistivity data during an open day in 1996.
3.17: County archaeologist Mike Watson guiding visitors at Wroxeter in 19