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    Writing Instructional Strategies

    STRATEGY MATERIAL PURPOSE / DESCRIPTION CITATION / FURTHER READ WRITING PROCESS

    POWER

    Helps students to : Plan Organize Write Edit Revise

    Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. E., Anderson, L. M., Anthony, H. M., & Stevens, D. D. (1991). American Educational Research Journal, 23, 337-372. Learning Toolbox. Steppingstone Technology Grant. James Madison University, MSC 1903, Harrisonburg, VA 22807. http://coe.jmu.edu/LearningToolbox/printer/power.pdf

    DEFENDS (Argumentative)

    Helps students to: Write a composition defending a position Provide reasons to back up position

    Ellis, E., & Lenz, K. (1987). A Component Analysis of Effective Learning Strategies for LD Students. Learning Disabilities Focus, 2, 94-107. Alley, G.R. (1988). Effects of Generalization Instruction on the Written Language Performance of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities in the Mainstream Classroom. Reading, Writing, and Learning Disabilities, 4, 291-309.

    http://cehs.unl.edu/csi/Pdfs/defends.pdf

    http://coe.jmu.edu/LearningToolbox/printer/power.pdfhttp://coe.jmu.edu/LearningToolbox/printer/power.pdfhttp://cehs.unl.edu/csi/Pdfs/defends.pdfhttp://cehs.unl.edu/csi/Pdfs/defends.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/POWER_8.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/DEFENDS_23.pdf

  • 2

    Writing Instructional Strategies

    STRATEGY MATERIAL PURPOSE / DESCRIPTION CITATION / FURTHER READ PLANNING

    POW

    Helps students to: Pick ideas (i.e., decide what to write about)

    Organize their notes (i.e., brainstorm and

    organize possible writing ideas into a writing plan)

    Write and say more (i.e., continue to modify the

    plan while writing)

    IES Practice Guide: Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers, U.S. Department of Education, June 2012. (p.16)

    This link provides a power point that explains SRSD and STOP, DARE, PLAN, TREE, POW, and WRITE. Information about teaching the self-regulating strategies for student materials and links to Peabody/ Vanderbilt interactive tutorials are provided.

    https://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdf

    STOP (Argumentative)

    Helps students to: Suspend judgment

    Take sides Organize ideas Plan to adjust as they write.

    IES Practice Guide: Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers, U.S. Department of Education, June 2012. (p.26)

    This link provides a power point that explains SRSD and STOP, DARE, PLAN, TREE, POW, and WRITE. Information about teaching the self-regulating strategies for student materials and links to Peabody/ Vanderbilt interactive tutorials are provided.

    https://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdf

    https://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttps://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttps://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttps://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttps://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttps://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/POW_1.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/STOP_3.pdf

  • 3

    Writing Instructional Strategies

    STRATEGY MATERIAL PURPOSE / DESCRIPTION CITATION / FURTHER READ WRITING PROCESS

    PLAN

    Helps students to: Pay attention to the prompt List main ideas Add supporting information Number major points

    This link provides a power point that explains SRSD and STOP, DARE, PLAN, TREE, POW, and WRITE. Information about teaching the self-regulating strategies for student materials and links to Peabody/Vanderbilt interactive tutorials are provided. https://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdf

    BODY

    Helps students to: Brainstorm/generate ideas for their paper Review their ideas and place a number by what

    will go first, second, third, and so on Decide which are main ideas and which are

    supporting ideas Create an outline that shows the order of the

    main ideas and the supporting details for each main idea

    IES Practice Guide: Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers, U.S. Department of Education, June 2012. (p.16) http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/writing_pg_062612.pdf

    https://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttps://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttps://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttp://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/writing_pg_062612.pdfhttp://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/writing_pg_062612.pdfhttp://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practice_guides/writing_pg_062612.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/PLAN_6.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/BODY.pdf

  • 4

    Writing Instructional Strategies

    STRATEGY MATERIAL PURPOSE / DESCRIPTION CITATION / FURTHER READ WRITING PROCESS

    RAFT

    Helps students to understand:

    Their role as writers

    Their audience

    The varied formats for writing

    Their topics

    By using this strategy, teachers encourage students to write creatively, to consider a topic from a different perspective, and to gain practice writing for different audiences. Students learn to respond to a writing prompt that requires them to think about various perspectives (Santa & Havens, 1995)

    Mitchell, D. (1996). Writing to learn across the curriculum and the English teacher. English Journal, 85, 93-97.

    Santa, C., & Havens, L. (1995). Creating independence through student-owned strategies: Project CRISS. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt

    http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19783/

    PLEASE

    Helps students to: Plan and write compositions Generate and organize ideas in simple paragraph

    form

    Welch, M., & Jensen, J.B. (1990). http://cehs.unl.edu/csi/Pdfs/please.pdf

    http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19783/http://www.adlit.org/strategies/19783/http://cehs.unl.edu/csi/Pdfs/please.pdfhttp://cehs.unl.edu/csi/Pdfs/please.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/RAFT_22.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/PLEASE_24.pdf

  • 5

    Writing Instructional Strategies

    STRATEGY MATERIAL PURPOSE / DESCRIPTION CITATION / FURTHER READ WRITING PROCESS

    SCORE (Research

    paper)

    Helps students to:

    Select a subject

    Create categories

    Obtain resources

    Read and take notes

    Evenly organize information

    By using this strategy, students learn a concrete, sequential structure to develop a topical research paper.

    Korinek, L., & Bulls, J.A. (1996, Summer). SCORE A: A student research paper writing strategy. Teaching Exceptional Children,60-63.

    http://cehs.unl.edu/csi/Pdfs/scorea.pdf

    http://cehs.unl.edu/csi/Pdfs/scorea.pdfhttp://cehs.unl.edu/csi/Pdfs/scorea.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/SCORE_27.pdf

  • 6

    Writing Instructional Strategies

    STRATEGY MATERIAL PURPOSE / DESCRIPTION CITATION / FURTHER READ DRAFTING

    TREE (Opinion)

    Helps students to develop: Topic Write a topic sentence expressing an

    opinion. Reason Give at least 3 reasons to support the

    topic sentence. Explanation Explain your reasons. Ending Formulate a statement to summarize

    the topic sentence.

    IES Practice Guide: Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers, U.S. Department of Education, June 2012. (p.26) https://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdf http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/casl/powtree.html

    WWW What=2 How=2

    (Narrative)

    Helps students to identify the parts of a good story: W- who

    W- when

    W-where

    W- What do the characters do?

    W- What happens then? H-How does the story end? H-How does the main character (and other

    characters) feel?

    National Center on Accelerating Student Learning, U.S. Department of Educations Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), Teachers College of Columbia University and Vanderbilt University.

    http://kc.vanderbilt.edu/casl/srsd.html

    https://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttps://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttps://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdfhttp://kc.vanderbilt.edu/casl/powtree.htmlhttp://kc.vanderbilt.edu/casl/powtree.htmlhttp://kc.vanderbilt.edu/casl/srsd.htmlhttp://kc.vanderbilt.edu/casl/srsd.htmlhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/TREE_2.pdfhttp://fcrr.org/PDFS/WWW_WHAT_2_HOW_2_29.pdf

  • 7

    Writing Instructional Strategies

    STRATEGY MATERIAL PURPOSE / DESCRIPTION CITATION / FURTHER READ DRAFTING

    WRITE

    Helps students to: Work from plan to develop thesis Remember writing goals Include transition words Try to use different kinds of sentences use Exciting words

    This link provides a power point that explains SRSD and STOP, DARE, PLAN, TREE, POW, and WRITE. Information about teaching the self-regulating strategies for student materials and links to Peabody/Vanderbilt interactive tutorials are provided. https://earlychildhoodeducation.usu.edu/files/uploads/UTah_State_SRSD.pptx.pdf

    SSS SENTENCE

    GENERATION

    Helps students to: Say Sentences orally Select the best sentence Structure sentences using transition words By using this strategy, students learn to select a sentence, paragraph, or text excerpt and imitate the authors form. They

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