Writing in APA Style

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(Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition, 2001) In text citations Reference list Courtesy of Mary Lynne Calhoun, Ph.D. (revised by Polly Haselden). Writing in APA Style. What is the APA style?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Writing in APA Style(Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition, 2001)In text citationsReference list

    Courtesy of Mary Lynne Calhoun, Ph.D.(revised by Polly Haselden)

  • What is the APA style?

    The American Psychological Association reference style is one of the Author-Date reference styles. When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source must be acknowledged in the text by author name, year of publication and location reference. If quoting directly, a location reference such as page numbers and paragraph numbers is also required.

  • Reference Citations in TextDocument your study throughout the text by citing by author and date the works you researched. This style of citation briefly identifies the source for readers and enables them to locate the source of information in the alphabetical reference list at the end of an article.

  • APA has a website:http://www.apastyle.org/

  • When should I use it?APA style is primarily used in the social sciences, so if you're taking a psychology, sociology, education course, chances are you'll be expected to write papers in APA style. It is used (required) by many academic Journals

  • Components of APA Paper design and layoutCitations in text Referencing

  • One Work by One AuthorAPA journals use the author-date of method of citation; that is, the surname of the author (do not include suffixes such as Jr.) and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point.

    Swanson (2000) compared reaction rates.

    In a recent study of reaction rates (Swanson, 2000)

  • One Work by One AuthorWithin a paragraph, you need not include the year in subsequent references to a study as long as the study can not be confused with other studies cited in the article:

    In a recent study of reaction times, Miller (2000) described the method Miller also found.

  • A source with three to five authorsIn all citations after the first, use the first author's name followed by et al.First citation: (Baldwin, Bevan, & Beshalke, 2000) Subsequent citation: (Baldwin et al., 2000)

  • A source with six or more authorsUse the first author's name followed by et al. in all citations6 authors: (Utley et al., 2001)7 authors: (Yawn et al., 2001)

  • A source with no authorUse the first few words of the title--in quotation marks for article or chapter, in italics for self-contained item ("Mad Cow," 2001) (Sleep Medicine, 2001)

  • Direct quotationIn textIn the text the author and year is cited the same but if it is a direct quote then you must put the page number after the quote.Perrin (2004) argues that "the research process is a complex combination of thinking, searching, reading, evaluating, writing and revising" (p. 1).

  • Citations from a secondary source This is a big area of concern. Must state that this is cited inExampleSamovar and Porter (as cited in Peterson, 2002, para.3) discuss that language must be first understood as symbols.

  • Reminder!!!All references are to be double spaced!!! If the reference has a second line, it should be indented.

    (This is very different from the fourth edition APA manual!)

  • References to PeriodicalsElements of a reference to a periodicalFinley, A. P., Jordan, O. M., & Miller, A.M. (2001). Easing through doctoral school: A student/advisor guide. Journal of Wishful Thinking ,1, 158-168.

  • References to Electronic PeriodicalsArticle authors: Herman, L. M., Kuczaj, S. A., III, & Holder, M. D.

    Date of publication: (2001)

    Article title: Responses to anomalous gestural sequences by a language-trained dolphin: Evidence for processing of semantic relations and syntactic information.

  • ReminderCapitalize only the first word of the title and of the subtitle, if any, and any proper names; do not underline the title or place quotation marks around it.

  • References to periodicalsJournal article, one author

    Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American Psychologist, 48, 574-576.

  • References to periodicalsJournal article, two authors, journal paginated by issue

    Klimoski, T., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.

  • References to periodicalsJournal article, three to six authors

    Finklea, W. J. , Greene, A .G . , Jenkinson, J . R. , & Zenith, Y. Z. (2001). Role of early supervisory experience in football assessments. Journal of Applied Contact, 77, 449-498.

  • References to periodicalsJournal article, more than six authors

    Kneip, R. C., Delamater, A. M , Ismond, T., Milford, C. , Salvia, L., Schwartz, D., et al. (2000). Self and spouse ratings of anger and hostility as predictors of coronary heart disease. Health Psychology, 12, 301-307.

  • Books Brochures, and Book ChaptersElements of a reference to an entire book

    Cone, J. D., & Forster, S. L. (1993). Dissertations and theses from start to finish: Psychology and related fields. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Books, Brochures, and book ChaptersBook authors or editors: Cone, J. D., & Foster, S. L. Date of publication: (1993). Book title: Dissertations and theses from start to finish: Psychology and related fields. Publication information: Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Books, Brochures, and Book ChaptersExamples of references to entire booksBook, third edition, Jr. in name

    Mitchell. T. R. , & Larson, J. R. , Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Books, Brochures, and Book ChaptersMassaro. D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick, Jr. , P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • References to periodicals

    In text, use the following parenthetical citation each time the work is cited: (Kneip et al., 1993).

  • Books, Brochures, and Book ChaptersElements of a reference to an entire bookCone, J. D. , & Foster, S. L. (1993). Dissertations and theses from start to finish: Psychology and related fields. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Books, Brochures, and Book ChaptersBook authors of editors: Cone, J. D. , & Foster, S. L. Date of publication: (1993). Book title: Dissertations and theses from start to finish: Psychology and related fields. Publication information: Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Books, Brochures, and Book ChaptersExamples of references to entire booksBook, third edition, Jr. in name

    Mitchell. T. R. , & Larson, J. r. , Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill.

  • Books, Brochures, and Book ChaptersElements of a reference to an article of chapter in an edited book

    Massaro. D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick, Jr. , P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.) , Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Books, Brochures, and Book Chapters Article or chapter author: Massaro, D.

    Date of publication: (1992).

    Article or chapter title: Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception.

    Book editors: In H. L. Pick, Jr. , P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds).

    Book title and article or chapter page numbers:

    Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84).

    Publication information: Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Books, Brochures, and Book Chapters*Examples of references to articles or chapters in edited books*Article or chapter in an edited book, two editors

    Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds. ) , Varieties of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330) . Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Books, Brochures, and Book ChaptersRemember:

    For a chapter in a book that is not edited, include the word (In) before the book title.

  • World Wide Web PageInternet-only JournalFredrickson, B.L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention and Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/ volume 3/ pre0030001a.html

  • Entire Web siteDon't put on reference list. Include URL in-text instead. The University of Wisconsin's Writing Center Web site is an excellent source of information on writing (http://www.wisc.edu/writing/).

  • Direct quotation from electronic source without page numbersUse paragraph numbers (preceded by para. or ); add section numbers for long documents Universal interventions "target the general public or a whole population group that has not been identified on the basis of individual risk" (Greenberg et al., 2000, Section I, para. 20).

  • ERIC Document Citation

    Mead, J. V. (1992). Looking at old photos: Investigating(Report NO. NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning (ERIC Document Reproduction No. ED 346 082)

  • Paper design or layout

  • Paper layout: Title page

  • Margins Use uniform