Writer’s Craft Notebooks Analyzing Author’s Craft to Enhance My Craft

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Writers Craft Notebooks Analyzing Authors Craft to Enhance My Craft. presented by Catherine DAoust July 3 , 2014. Ongoing grammar question:. To teach grammar or not to teach grammar?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Grammar Instruction Gradual Release through Anchor Activities

Writers Craft NotebooksAnalyzing Authors Craft to Enhance My Craft

presented by Catherine DAoust July 3, 2014

1

Ongoing grammar question:To teach grammar or not to teach grammar?

This journal derived from a desire to answer this question.3* Teachers today do not question if grammar should be taught because the standards require grammar instruction.CCSS Language Standards!!!

For more than 2000 years, people used these categories to describe the rules of any language studied (usually greek and roman languages)Does the research support teaching grammar traditionally? - NO! in view of the widespread agreement of research studies basedupon many types of students and teachers, the conclusion can be statedin strong and unqualified terms: the teaching of formal grammar has anegligible or, because it usually displaces some instruction andpractice in actual composition, even a harmful effect on the improvement of writing. R.Braddock, R. Lloyd-Jones, L. Schoer Research in Written Composition, NCTE, 1963

, Inquiring Minds want to knowWe know from research that there is no support for teaching grammar traditionally in isolation.5Those findings that report no correlation between the formal teaching of grammar and writing ability conclude only that grammar should not be taught in isolation,as an end in itself. They do not conclude that it should not be taught at allUnfortunately, the result of theresearch has been to drive grammar instruction out of the composition classroom, rather than into it, where itbelongs. Martha KollnRhetorical Grammar: Grammatical Choices, Rhetorical Effects, 1991But we need more research because as Kolln points out, the research does not show that grammar should not be taught at all.6Grammar Instructionin Meaningful, Productive Contexts opposed to Grammar Instruction in Isolation, often with drill and kill worksheets(sometimes called traditional grammar instruction)

In fact, we know that students need grammatical knowledge to address the needs of an audience AND we know that instruction should be done so that the magic of transfer can occur: Thus we seek meaningful productive contexts.7What is instruction in meaningful contexts?

This instruction is incorporated into reading and writing instruction in the classroom; grammar instruction becomes a natural part of Analyzing Authors Craft and learning style while applying it to students own writing.

Instruction is context-based and utilizes both didactic and constructivist pedagogical strategies: - Sometimes students just need directly to be taught rules and how the English language works. - They need continuous opportunities to apply what they have learned to their own writing.

Grammar InstructionShould NOT beGrammar Instruction is oftenRapid Release

Grammar instruction often suffers from Rapid Release where the writer is introduced to new information and asked immediately to apply the concept or knowledge independently. Usually resulting in failure and misunderstanding. And possibly a dislike for grammar which is why books are written tiled Grammar Sucks.10In some classrooms TEACHER RESPONSIBILITYSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFocus LessonI do itIndependentYou do it aloneFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

11This is the Rapid Release classroom.TEACHER RESPONSIBILITYSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFocus LessonGuided InstructionI do itWe do itYou do it togetherCollaborativeIndependentYou do it aloneA Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

12We want grammar instruction to release students to independent practice graduallyGradual Release ProcessFocused, directed instruction with modelsGuided, interactive first experiencesCollaborative practice for correction and further learningIndependent practice for attainment in meaningful contextsGrammar Instruction is often Declarative Knowledge only

highly abstract, without real applicationinstead of

Procedural Knowledge

where students use new knowledge in real, meaning- ful contexts where they practice and improveAdditionally, the transfer possibility is clouded by the fact that instruction is highly abstract.14The goal of grammar instruction is to improve writing and speakingGrammar is often taught as if the goal was to acquire linguistic understanding of the English language.We sometimes forget the goal of grammar instruction.15 CCSS excerpt on Language Standards Note on range and content of student language use:

To be college and career ready in language, students must have firm control over the conventions of standard English. At the same time, they must come to appreciate that language is as at least as much a matter of craft as of rules and be able to choose words, syntax, and punctuation to express themselves and achieve particular functions and rhetorical effects. They must also have extensive vocabularies, built through reading and study, enabling them to comprehend complex texts and engage in purposeful writing about and conversations around content. They need to become skilled in determining or clarifying the meaning of words and phrases they encounter, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies to aid them. They must learn to see an individual word as part of a network of other wordswords, for example, that have similar denotations but different connotations. The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions, effective language use, and vocabulary are unimportant to reading, writing, speaking, and listening; indeed, they are inseparable from such contexts.Grammar ResearchWriting as a decision-making activityCommon Core College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for LanguageConventions of Standard EnglishDemonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.Explain to students: California has recently adopted new Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and they have identified 10 anchor standards for all grade levels, 6-12. Two of those standards involve being able to understand and interpret theme. In October, I asked you to write an essay about theme in a nonfiction article about ( an earthquake in Haiti/a man who sacrified his life to save victims of a plane crash.) It was a challenging task, I know. Next month, were going to get those essays back with comments from graduate students at UCI about how to make them better. But first were going to learn more about theme.18Common Core College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for LanguageKnowledge of Language3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.Explain to students: California has recently adopted new Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and they have identified 10 anchor standards for all grade levels, 6-12. Two of those standards involve being able to understand and interpret theme. In October, I asked you to write an essay about theme in a nonfiction article about ( an earthquake in Haiti/a man who sacrified his life to save victims of a plane crash.) It was a challenging task, I know. Next month, were going to get those essays back with comments from graduate students at UCI about how to make them better. But first were going to learn more about theme.19Common Core College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for LanguageVocabulary acquisition and Use4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate

5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.6.Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.Explain to students: California has recently adopted new Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and they have identified 10 anchor standards for all grade levels, 6-12. Two of those standards involve being able to understand and interpret theme. In October, I asked you to write an essay about theme in a nonfiction article about ( an earthquake in Haiti/a man who sacrified his life to save victims of a plane crash.) It was a challenging task, I know. Next month, were going to get those essays back with comments from graduate students at UCI about how to make them better. But first were going to learn more about theme.20

Constance WeaverHarry NodenJeff Anderson

2005

19991979These researchers have been talking about and emphasizing these contexts for years.21Grammar Research saysConstance Weaver (2007) explains, Grammar taught in isolation from writing does not produce significant improvem

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