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  • World War LoomsChapter 16Section 1: Dictators Threaten World PeaceSection 2: War in EuropeSection 3: The Holocaust (Covered in Chapter 17)Section 4: America Moves Toward War

  • Joseph Stalin and the Soviet UnionBolshevik Revolution in Nov. 1917Civil War in RussiaCommunist Soviet Union established in 1922 by V. I. LeninJoseph Stalin takes power after Lenins death and power struggle in 1924Stalin = Man of SteelAgriculture and Industry Prime Economic Goals in Stalins series of 5 Year Plans

  • Stalin Transforms Soviet UnionUSSR changes from backward rural country to industrial powerAbolished all private property and set up collective farms (large government farms worked by hundreds of families)All industrial activity directed by the governmentBy 1937, Soviet Union was worlds second largest industrial power

  • Stalins Reign of TerrorStalin carried out purges against anyone who threatened his power.Very paranoid and even loyal supporters were not safeEstimated 8 to 13 million deaths carried outMillions die in famines because of failure of agriculture due to restructuring of societyTotalitarian Dictatorship government that exerts total power or control over its citizensLack of individual rightsGovernment suppresses opposition Many sent to Siberia to prison work camps

  • FascismEmerges in Italy and Germany in the 1920sWhat is Fascism?

    View the Rise of Fascism and Militarism @

  • What is Fascism?Theory of Government used to describe the governments of Italy, Germany, and Spain.Appeared 1st in ItalyPracticed best in GermanyDefinition: A righteous authoritarian police stateCharacterized by extreme nationalism And complete government control of the economyPlaces the wellbeing of the state above the welfare of the individualNot founded on any ideology except that of the leaderGenerally has negative overtonesAnti-Monarchist (King or Queen)Anti-Clerical (Church)Anti-SocialistAnti-CommunistAnti-DemocraticEtc.

  • Fascism in ItalyWhy was Italy ripe for a fascist takeover?

    Didnt feel victorious after WWI and didnt feel they received the promised payoffConditions in Italy were bad after the warFood shortages, rising prices, unemployment, business failuresStrikes over social and land reformRed ScareHow does this compare to the U.S. after WWI?

  • Benito MussoliniLow class family, son of a blacksmith, victim of child abuseBullyTeacher, Political Journalist, EditorExtreme NationalistJoins Army in WWI, but wounded in trainingHad many mistressesGreat Orator (Like Hitler)Nickname: IL Duce (the leader)

  • Mussolini & the Fascist Party1919 Mussolini and his followers organize the fascist partyConsisted of World War I VeteransVeterans dissatisfied with the Italian GovernmentRose out of the Trenches of WWISimilar to the Nazi PartyMussoliniAppealed to Nationalism and Patriotism of ItaliansPromised a Better ItalyTook advantage of hard times in Italy (like Hitler)

  • Mussolini SupportersBusiness Owners, Government Officials, Landowners

    2. Army Officers / Nationalist

    3. War Veterans

    4. Middle Class, University Students, Shopkeepers, ProfessionalsFear the spread of communism, wanted strong govt to end strikes & curb working class political powers

    Restoring glory and military strength of ancient Rome

    Failure of current govt to help them, like military discipline and organization of the party

    Fear of growing socialist party and see labor unions and socialism as a threat to private property

  • March on RomeBy 1922 the Fascist Party is very successful in many major Italian cities and has over 300,000 membersOct. 1922 he plans the March on Rome to make a bid for national powerMussolini only observes the thousands who march to demand he be made Prime Minister of ItalyParliament asks the King to call in the ArmyWhy wont the King call in the Army?Because of fear the Army will join the marchKey government officials, the army, and the police side with the fascist and demand that Mussolini be appointed Prime MinisterItaly a Constitutional Monarchy (What does that mean?)King agrees and Mussolini appears in Rome to be appointed Prime Minister of Italy

  • New Government for GermanyThe defeat of Germany in WWI had left Germany in a state of unrest and confusionMany blame the Weimar RepublicGovernment established after the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm IISigned the Armistice Nov. 11, 1918Feb. 1919 a Republican Constitution is adopted

  • Weimar RepublicFederal State with 4 Levels of Government Separation of Powers

    Reichstag (Lower House) *Most Important Body4 year termDirect ElectionsProportional RepresentationUniversal SuffrageReichstrat (Upper House)President Ceremonial King7 year termDirect Election Chancellor More important leaderAppointed by ReichstagWorks with ReichstagHead of the Government

  • Weimar Republic UnpopularLack of experience with DemocracyAssociate Weimar Republic withharshness of Treaty of VersaillesDefeat in World War IGovernment known as November CriminalsMilitarists and Nationalist spread rumor that Germany had not been defeated in WWI so the people would reject the treaty and rebuild its army in order to restore Germanys powerful position in the worldSee terms of Treaty at

  • Adolf HitlerBorn in 1889 in Braunau, Austria, near the German borderNon-GraduateRejected by Art SchoolLives off of inheritance and odd jobs painting and selling postcards in ViennaAvoids Austrian Draft / Joins German Army in WWIMessenger on the front lines (very dangerous) Wounded and decorated with Iron CrossIn hospital at end of WWI and doesnt understand why Germany lostVery bitter about end of war full Biography at

  • Hitler Gets a New JobAfter the war Hitler is assigned to investigate all new political partiesAttends the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP)Joins and within a short time takes control of the Nazi Party (short for NSDAP)Great Speaker and Organizer

  • Beer Hall PutschNazi Party attempts to overthrow the Bavarian Government (Largest German State)Hitler is arrestedSentenced to 5 years in jail of which he only serves 9 monthsWrites his famous book Mein Kampf while in jail

  • Mein KampfMy StruggleHitler discusses his views and ambitions for GermanyLebensraum Living SpaceExpansion and territorial advancementLiving Space for the German People including resources and foodRacial superiority of the German PeopleGermans as the Master Race descended from the Aryan PeopleJews, Slavs, and other peoples were inferior and would weaken GermanyHitler used the Anti-Semitic feelings that already existed in Europe and used it to blame the Jews for all the national problems in GermanyDefeat in WWIHigh UnemploymentSpread of CommunismEconomic Reform

  • Dead Period for Nazis1923-1929 was a dead period for the Nazi PartyWeimar Republic rebounds from economic issues by 1923Steep inflationInability to pay reparationsDawes Plan very helpful War Debt TriangleGermany admitted to the League of NationsFulfillment of Treaty of Versailles Terms

  • Great Depression Has Global ImpactEconomic hard times allowed the Nazi Party to regain strengthU.S. cuts loans to other counties, including GermanyWeimar Government struggles By 1932 the Nazi Party is the strongest party in Germany, however it does not have a majority in the Reichstag

  • Hitler Named ChancellorJan. 1933, Hitler is appointed Chancellor of GermanyInfluence of Industrialists, Landowners, Bankers, and Politicians who thought they could control Hitler once he was in powerThey were WRONG!!!!!!!!Hitler had learned his lesson after the disaster of the Beer Hall Putsch and had gone after power through legal means.

  • Hitler Takes Total PowerCalls for elections to the Reichstag for March in an attempt to gain the majority of seats in the ReichstagFeb. 1933 the Reichstag building is burned (One week before election)Who is blamed?CommunistWho is arrested?Dutch JewWhat impact does this have?Limits Freedom of Speech and the PressOutlaws the Communist Party

  • Enabling Act PassedAfter election the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act Gives Hitler the power of a dictatorGermany becomes a Totalitarian StateHitler proclaims the Third Reich = Third Great German EmpireHitler De Fhrer = The Leader

  • Hitler is a DictatorBanned all Political Parties except the Nazi PartyDissolved the Trade UnionsSet up courts for secret trialsTook control of the ArmySet up Concentration Camps for real or imagined enemies of the stateCommunistHomosexualsJewsGypsiesOthers

  • Night of the Long KnivesJune 30, 1934Purge of the SA (Brown Shirts or Stormtroopers ) Sturmabteilung Hitlers party enforcersHad wanted to take control of the Army and had used rough tactics with the Army and business leaders1,000 Officers are arrested and many executed including Hitler friend Orst Rohm the leader of the SACarried out by the SS Schutzstaffel (Protective Squad) and the Gestapo (Secret Police)

  • Life in Germany Improves Life in Germany improves under the Nazi Party for someUnemployment nearly vanishes by 1938Raised workers s


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