World History Unit: The Rise of Ancient Civilizations

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  • World HistoryUnit: The Rise of Ancient Civilizations

  • First, meet with another person who has the same role as you. Answer the questions on the following slide on a sheet of paperThen, meet with a person who has a different role, and compare your lives

  • The Choice to Settle DownHunter-Gatherers and Farmers-SettlerHow do they feed themselves?Where and in what do you live?What jobs/roles are available?What are the dangers of this lifestyle?What are the benefits?

  • II. How Civilization DevelopsFive Characteristics of CivilizationsCities are the next step after farmingCities are the beginnings of civilization

  • 1. Advanced Cities

  • 2. Specialized Workers

  • 3. Complex InstitutionsInstitutions systems of organization in a community

  • 4. Record Keeping Incan khipu

  • 5. Improved TechnologyProduction chains allow for the development of more advanced technology

  • The River Valley civilizationsThe first four civilizations developed in river valleys.

  • Mesopotamia Chapter 2, Section 1meso MiddleMesopotamia - Land between the rivers the Tigris and the EuphratesModern day Iraq

  • The Fertile CrescentRegion stretching from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to the Mediterranean CoastFertile area surrounded by arid deserts and mountains

  • Favorable environment but prone to dry spells, flooding.Few metals & timberTechnology developed to overcome these problems irrigation, mud bricks, trade

  • Culture of the Sumer City StatesComplex societies located in about a dozen independent cities - UrZiggurat temples at center of cityPolytheistic religionGloomy afterlife

  • 3. Achievements Math base 60 systemCuneiform - oldest written languageWheel, chariot, sailNails, hammers4. The Epic of Gilgamesh epic story about a kings search for immortality

  • Mesopotamian Empire buildersAs states grew, they came into conflict with each other, two thousand years of warSargon of Akkad (2350 B.C.) brought together northern and southern MesopotamiaBabylonian Empire (2000 B.C.) Hammurabi: ruler of Babylon at the peak of its empire, established a uniform code of law

  • II. The Nile ValleyEnvironment & Geography1. Predictable, seasonal floods2. Fertile valley surrounded by harsh desert

  • Ancient Egyptian HistoryOld Kingdom - Unification of Egypt around 3100 BC, early pyramidsMiddle Kingdom 1985 B.C.New Kingdom 1500 B.C. military expansion of Egypt, new religious beliefs, Akenathen and Tutankhamun

  • Egyptian ReligionPharaohs viewed as godsPolytheistic Chief gods were Ra (Re) the Sun God, and Osiris, the God of the Dead, Isis, and Anubis the god of the underworldAfterlife was highly important. Mummification for the wealthy

  • AchievementsBronze armor and weaponsHieroglyphicsMath: decimals, approximation of pi Medicine: pain killers, stitching of wounds, setting of broken bones

  • Summary QuestionsHow did the Mesopotamians overcome the limitations of their environment?How did the religion of the Egyptians influence their construction of citieds

  • Planned Cities on the Indus and the Development of Hinduism and Buddhism 2000 BC 250 BC

  • GeographyIndian continent protected by mountains to the northDiverse climateDeserts, jungles, plainsMonsoons seasonal stormsUnpredictable flooding

  • Settlements and Buildings2500 B.C. planned cities built on a grid system, used mud bricksAdvanced water systems, sewers, plumbingHarrapan Civilization

  • Religious BeliefsTheocracyTemple structures are not a prominent part of the cities (we think!)

  • Economic LifeIndia traded cotton cloth for precious metals Used rivers for transporting goodsUsed east-west monsoons to trade with Arabs & Persians

  • Founder/Origins - HinduismNo single founder Devolved from a collection of diverse beliefs of ancient Indians, the Aryans

  • Key Beliefs Hinduism One must learn ones relationship to the Brahmin, the world soulYour soul is reincarnated until you achieve this enlightenment, called mokshaKarma, ones good and bad deeds, follows you through this life and the next

  • Gods & Deities - HinduismPolytheisticBrahman eternal, infinite and ultimately beyond human perception or descriptionTrimurti the holy trinity of HinduismBrahma the creatorVishnu the protectorShiva the destroyer, the pure, the all knowing

  • Brahma

  • Shiva

  • Vishnu

  • Sacred Literature - HinduismVedas Stories or mantras by the ancient Indians Upanishads commentaries on the Vedas by Hindu scholars

  • Effect on Society - HinduismIdeas about karma and reincarnation reinforced caste systemPeople were born into lower classes for a reasonHinduism dominated ones social role

  • Modern Day Traditions - HinduismRole of the caste system is highly debated in modern IndiaLargest religion in India, 3rd largest in worldVegetarianism at the very least NO beef

  • Founder/Origins - BuddhismSiddhartha Gautama, born 563 B.C.Wealthy, young noblemanProphecy at his birthAt age 29, he left home to search for enlightenmentFound it after meditating for 49 days under a tree

  • Key Beliefs Buddhism Four Noble TruthsFirst: Life is filled with suffering and sorrowSecond: The cause of all suffering is peoples selfish desire for material pleasureThird: The way to end suffering is to end desireFourth: The way to overcome desire is to follow the Eightfold PathGood actions lead to spiritual enlightenmentReincarnationNirvana enlightenment, release from pain and suffering

  • Gods - BuddhismSome Buddhists treat Buddha as a god, others do notSome claim that Buddhism is a way of life and not a religion.

  • Sacred Literature - BuddhismDharma religious teachings of Buddha

  • Effect on Society - BuddhismEncouraged people to reject materialismOpposed the caste systemBuddhist monks and missionaries spread Buddhist ideas to China thru trade and travel

  • Modern Day Traditions - BuddhismRelatively few Buddhists in India todaySupporters of pacifism and environmentalism350 million worldwideDalai Lama believed by Tibetan Buddhists to be the reincarnation of Buddha

  • Ancient China Chapter 2, Section 4Chapter 4, Section 4

  • 1. Geographic FeaturesSteppes & deserts to the north and westTwo major rivers, Huang He (Yellow) and Yangtze

  • 2. Environmental ChallengesMassive, unpredictable floods by Huang He (Yellow River)Chinas SorrowOnly 10% of China is arable (farmable)

  • 3. SettlementsShang Dynasty built AnyangUsed wood, earthen walls

  • 4. Social ClassesSharp division between nobility and peasants

  • 5. Role of FamilyRespect for parents importantWomen were treated as inferiors

  • 6. Religious BeliefsA supreme god, Shang Di, and many lesser godsAncestor & nature worship family gods

  • 7. Writing SystemPictograph Writing each symbol represents an ideaHad to know 1,500 character to be barely literate

  • 8. Technological AdvancesMore advanced than the other river valley civilizationsCast ironRoads and canalsFirst use of coined money

  • 9. ArtistrySKIP

  • ConfucianismFounder: Confucius (551-479 B.C.)

  • Basic IdeasRespect for familyBest able, not best born should rule)Courtesy & respect towards othersNot a religion

  • Influence on SocietyDevelopment of a bureaucracy (professional leaders)

  • DaoismFounder: Lao Tzu

  • Basic BeliefsNatural order is more important than social orderUniverse is made up of balancing forcesUp/down, male/female

  • Seafaring TradersThe MinoansLocated on the island of Crete in the Aegean, capital at KnossosNamed for King Minos, and the legend of the MinotaurPracticed goddess worship, along with bull idolatry

  • Minoan Map

  • 4. Minoan civilization decline began in 1200 B.C.Natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes5. Possible origin of the mythical Atlantis

  • The PhoeniciansEmerged around 1100 B.C. after the decline of the MinoansLocated in the area now known as LebanonIncredible seafarers and traders Tin, Glass, Murex

  • Trade Routes

  • Phoenician Contributions First known civilization to sail past Gibraltar all the way to Britain and around AfricaColonies along entire Mediterranean rimDeveloped an alphabet a phonetic writing system adapted later by the Greeks

  • The Origins of JudaismAbraham Father of the JewsTorah First five books of the Hebrew BibleTradition says it was revealed to MosesGenesis, Exodus, Leviticus, numbers, Deuteronomy

  • 2. How were the Hebrews treated in Egypt?150 B.C.: Great FamineDue to Josephs high position, Hebrews were well treated. A later Pharaoh felt threatened by the large Hebrew population

  • 3. Why is Moses an important figure?Led the Hebrews from slavery into the Promised Lands (Canaan)Delivered Gods laws to the Jews

  • 4. What were the achievements of Saul and David?Saul first king of Israel and JudahDavid Saul son in law, great king, warrior, poetTraditional author of the Psalms

  • 5. Why did King Solomon build a great temple in Jerusalem?To be a permanent home of the Ark of the CovenantContained the stone tablets of Moses

  • 6. What were the reasons for the division?The Northern Kingdom was conquered by the Assyrians in 750 B.C.

  • 7. Who was Nebuchadnezzar? Babylonian King of Chaldean DynastyConquered Jerusalem, enslaved the JewsBabylonian Captivity

  • 8. What ruler allowed the Hebrews to return to their homeland?Cyrus the Great

  • The Persian Empire Chapter 4, Section 3Located in Present Day IranMost powerful empire neighboring the Mediterranean for hundreds of years

  • King CyrusExpanded the Persian EmpireRespected local religionsAllowed Jews to return to Israel

  • King DariusDealt with revolts in his empireFervent worshiper of Ahura Mazda (Zoroastrianism)Built the Royal RoadFather of Xerxes

  • Both Created Satraps (governors) to rule provincesFought with Lydian Greeks

  • Writing for a PurposeSatraps officials appointed to rule a province. Royal Road road that stretched across Persian Empire. Connected to Silk Road

  • ZoroastrianismAhura Mazda: Supreme GodZarathustra the ProphetUniversal conflict between good and evil

  • IV. The Origins of JudaismImportance of the lands along the Eastern MediterraneanAncient Names: CanaanModern Countries: Lebanon, Israel,

  • A. Abraham & the HebrewsThe Hebrews are the people of the Torah (Old Testament) which tells their historyAbrahamMoved from Ur to CanaanEarly Jewish beliefsMonotheism, began as henotheism Covenant with God (Yahweh)Protection in this world

  • B. Moses & the ExodusMigration to Egypt & later slaveryTorah says that Moses led the Hebrews out of slaveryMoses and the new covenant with God the 10 Commandments Arrival in CanaanJudges ruled the 12 tribesThe Lost tribes

  • C. Principles of JudaismSettling in Canaan allowedObservance of Jewish lawDietary requirementsSabbath

    Observance of matters of faithMonotheismBelief in the prophecies

  • D. The Kingdom of IsraelSaulDavid son in lawSolomon (900s B.C.)Traded with PhoeniciansBuilt the Temple in JerusalemSplit into Israel (N.) and Judah (S.)Northern kingdom captured by AssyriansBabylonian Captivity (586 B.C.)Destroyed temple, survivors exiled to BabylonReleased by Persians 50 years laterBeginnings of Jewish messianic prophecy