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  • Major Non-Western Cultures/Introduction/Page

    World History, Part I

    Instructor’s Guide and Notes by John & Sarita Holzmann

  • World History, Part 1 ♦ Section Two ♦ Week 9 ♦ Schedule

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    . Week 9—Five-Day Schedule

    Date: Day 1 41 Day 2 42 Day 3 43 Day 4 44 Day 5 45

    Bible Reading

    2 Chronicles 25 2 Chronicles 26 2 Chronicles 27 2 Chronicles 28 2 Chronicles 29:1-19

    Children's Bible Handbook

    Lesson 9, plus one “To Think About and Do” problem each day.

    Memorization

    Finish memorizing Psalm 15 this week.

    History The Story of the World: Ancient Times History Guide pp. 7-18

    chap. 28 pp. 220-225

    chap. 29

    chap. 30 pp. 233-237

    chap. 30 pp. 237-240

    ❏ ➣ ❏

    chap. 31

    The Usborne Encyclopedia of World History History Guide pp. 31-49

    pp. 190-191 pp. 185-187 pg. 174 pg. 175

    Current Events ❏

    Readers Archimedes and the Door of Science Reader Guide pp. 5-6

    chaps. 1-2

    ❏ ➣ ❏

    chaps. 3-4

    ➣ ❏

    chaps. 5-6 chaps. 7-10 chaps. 11-end

    Read-Aloud(s) The Trojan War Read-Aloud Guide pp. 71-74

    Part IV chaps. 1-2

    chap. 3 chaps. 4-5

    ➣ ❏

    chaps. 6-7 Part V chap. 1

    Favorite Poems Old and New

    pp. 112-114 pp. 115-120 pp. 121-124 pp. 124-125 pp. 126-127

    Physical Education

    Other Notes

  • World History, Part 1 ♦ Section Two ♦ Week 9 ♦ Schedule

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    . Week 9—Four-Day Schedule

    Date: Day 1 41 Day 2 42 Day 3 43 Day 4 44 Day 5 45

    Bible Reading

    2 Chronicles 17 2 Chronicles 18 2 Chronicles 19 2 Chronicles 20

    Children's Bible Handbook

    Lesson 9, plus one “To Think About and Do” problem each day.

    Memorization

    Finish memorizing Psalm 15 this week.

    History The Story of the World: Ancient Times History Guide pp. 7-18

    chap. 27

    ❏ ➣ ❏

    chap. 28 pp. 215-220

    chap. 28 pp. 220-225

    chap. 29

    The Usborne Encyclopedia of World History History Guide pp. 31-49

    pg. 184

    ➣ ❏

    pp. 188-189

    ➣ ❏

    pp. 190-191 pp. 185-187

    Current Events ❏

    Readers Theras and His Town Reader Guide pp. 49-50

    chaps. xii-xv

    ➣ ❏

    chaps. xvi-xviii

    ➣ ❏

    chaps. xix-xxii

    ➣ ❏

    chaps. xxiii-xxvii

    ➣ ❏

    Read-Aloud(s) The Trojan War Read-Aloud Guide pp. 71-74

    Part I chaps. 1-2

    chaps. 3-5

    ➣ ❏

    Part II chap. 1

    ➣ ❏

    chap. 2

    Favorite Poems Old and New

    pp. 106-108 pp. 109-112 pp. 113-115 pp. 116-121

    Physical Education

    Other Notes

  • 14 ♦ World History, Part 1 ♦ History Study Guide ♦ The Story of the World: Ancient Times

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    . The Olmec of Central America, or “Mesoamerica,” lived in Mexico (ca. 1200-900 BC). They built dirt pyramids, and created enormous statues of heads nine feet tall.

    Chapter 27 Rome founded (753 BC)

    ➣ Rome; Italy

    Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    A king put his grandsons, Romulus and Remus, into baskets on the Tiber River to keep them from coming to power. A wolf found the two babies and suckled them until a shepherd adopted them. When the boys were grown, they came to seven hills. The brothers thought it would be shrewd to build a city on hills, since such a city would be hard to attack. Romulus declared himself king of the town, but Remus challenged him. Romulus then killed Remus and named his city “Rome,” after himself (753 BC). Thus, Rome was founded.

    The Etruscans lived in northern Italy (ca. 800 BC). They traveled to Greece, and learned Greek culture.

    The Romans sought to control all of Italy and conquered the Etruscans. The Etruscans taught the Romans Greek culture.

    In Rome, only rich and powerful men could vote. They were the patricians. Two patricians were elected to control the city, called the consuls.

    Chapter 28 Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    The Romans worshipped the same gods as the Greeks, but renamed them. For example, Zeus became Jupiter; Poseidon became Neptune; and Aphrodite became Venus.

    Once the Romans controlled all of Italy, they built roads so they could govern well. They first dug wide ditches, then filled the ditches with sand, poured small stones on top of the sand, and poured concrete over the stones. They put paving stones on top of the concrete, and set up mile markers between cities. Some of Rome’s roads are still in use today.

    The Romans were the first to use concrete; they built apartment houses up to five stories tall.

    The Romans also designed a way to get water into the cities. They built aqueducts, or bridges that transport water.

    For amusement, Romans would watch the gladiators perform in the arena. These performances were often blood-baths, with men (often prisoners from conquests) killing each other.

    Chapter 29 Punic Wars (264-146 BC)

    Hannibal (ca. 247-182 BC)

    Hannibal crossed Alps with elephants (218 BC)

    Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    Carthage and Rome went to war. Both cities wanted to control trade on the Mediterranean.

    Carthage had the early advantage because they had a navy and Rome did not even know how to make ships. But when a Carthaginian ship wrecked on the Italian coast, the Romans studied it and figured out how to copy it.

    Hannibal crossed the Alps with forty elephants, specially trained to fight. The Romans fled in terror, and Hannibal fought up and down Italy.

    Under Roman general Scipio, the Romans sailed to Carthage and attacked. Hannibal returned home to help his city, but his soldiers were defeated. Carthage finally surrendered. (The First Punic War was from 264-241 BC; the Second Punic War was from 218-202 BC.)

    Chapter 30 Aryans control Indus Valley (1500-500 BC)

    Gautama Buddha (563-483 BC) founds Buddhism (ca. 500 BC)

    ➣ Ganges River

    Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    Settlers, called “Aryans,” came to the Indus Valley (ca. 1500 BC, with the high point of civilization ca. 500 BC). They worshipped the gods Shiva and Ganga, some of the gods of Hinduism.

    All Hindu believers worship the Ganges River.

    In Hinduism, the story of creation begins with an enormous man, named Purusha. The gods divide up his body and it becomes the earth. For example, the head becomes the sky and the eyes the sun.

    Different castes also came from Purusha. The Brahmin caste came from Purusha’s mouth. They were the priests, people of honor, wealth, and intelligence. The warriors came from Purusha’s arms. They protected

  • 38 ♦ World History, Part 1 ♦ History Study Guide ♦ The Usborne Encyclopedia of World History

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    . pg. 185 Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    The Punic Wars began in 264 BC between Rome and Carthage and lasted until Carthage was destroyed in 146 BC. The Romans then conquered all the lands around the Mediterranean.

    General Julius Caesar seized power of Rome in 49 BC, but some senators stabbed him when they thought he wanted to make himself king.

    In 31 BC Augustus defeated Mark Anthony and became Rome’s first emperor.

    pp. 186-187 Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    Over the next 150 years the Romans built a huge empire. It was at its largest under Emperor Trajan in AD 117.

    The Romans won many wars because they had a strong, well-organized army who fought in disciplined groups. They surrounded cities and then used clever techniques to conquer them.

    Romans built many strong roads to help soldiers travel long distances easily.

    pp. 188-189 ➣ Pompeii

    Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    When Rome conquered a land, they installed a governor and made sure people paid taxes and followed Roman rules.

    New well-planned Roman towns with temples and baths were built all over the empire.

    Rich people in Rome had fancy, spacious, houses with gardens, central heating, and their own water supply.

    Romans built aqueducts because they needed water for public baths and fountains. These pipes carried water a great distance across hills and valleys.

    The wealthy town Pompeii in southern Italy was buried under ash and scorching lava in AD 79 when Mount Vesuvius erupted.

    pp. 190-191 Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    Gladiators were slaves or criminals who entertained crowds. Thousands were killed in this sport.

    These fights took place in amphitheatres, including the Coliseum, which held 50,000 people.

    There were also dangerous chariot races and plays for Romans to enjoy. These plays were mainly comedies with lots of music and dancing.

    Romans played board and gambling games and relaxed in public parks and gardens.

    pg. 192 ➣ Judea

    Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    Christianity began with Jesus, who picked twelve disciples in AD 30 and began healing people and preaching about the kingdom of God.

    Jesus was arrested and crucified because the Jewish religious leaders and Romans were afraid his ideas might lead to a rebellion.

    After he was crucified Jesus rose from the dead and his followers spread his message.

    pg. 193 Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    Christianity spread quickly but many early Christians were tortured and killed because emperors saw the Christians as rebels.

    Christians often met in secret and used secret symbols to distinguish themselves.

    In AD 312 Emperor Constantine accepted the Christian faith after seeing a cross in the sky before battle. He helped Christianity spread across Europe and built the first great churches.

    In AD 391 Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire.

    pg. 194 ➣ Constantinople

    Events and Comments for Study and Discussion

    Rome weakened in AD 200 when the Roman armies chose their own emperors and fighting broke out among the soldiers.

    At this time the barbarians attacked Rome.

    General Diocletian reorganized the army and made it bigger. In AD 286 Diocletian split the Roman Empire in two.

  • World History, Part 1 ♦ Reader Study Guide ♦ Archimedes and the Door of Science ♦ 5

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    Setting Sicily; 200s BC

    Overview Archimedes (ca. 287-212 BC)

    Archimedes, born on the island of Sicily, was perhaps the greatest mathematician in the history of the world. He began the science of mechanics, which deals with the actions of forces on things, hydrostatics (the pressure of liquids), the laws of the lever and pulleys, the principle of buoyancy, how to measure specific gravity, the Archimedean screw, an astronomical machine that showed the eclipses and estimated a year’s length, used numbers bigger than imaginable, started the road to calculus, and gave the world a way to think about mathematics. This book describes these finds in greater detail, as well as telling about the end of his life: his war machines and his death.

    General Comprehension Question Which of Archimedes’ inventions or discoveries do you like the most? Which do you (personally) use?

    Chapters 1-2 ➣ Siracusa (Syracuse) Q; Sicily W (map 1)

    General Comprehension Questions

    How is a new baby welcomed into the world in 287 BC in Greece? (an olive branch hangs outside the door, a slave dips him in water and oil and wraps him in a woolen band, when he is five days old, the nurse runs around the household’s hearth with all the rest of the household running behind, and the family has a party to name the baby at ten days of age)

    Why does Archimedes not write about algebra? (algebra cannot exist without zero, and no one thought of zero for hundreds of years)

    Why does the world seem smaller today, even though we know about the whole world? (we can travel much more quickly than the ancients could)

    Do the Greeks like questions and arguments? (yes: wondering is the beginning of thinking, and if one listens in an argument as well as talk, one shares ideas and does not grow angry)

    What is the greatest ideal of the Greeks? (self-restraint: self-control, discipline, order in thinking and acting)

    What allows the Greeks to devote themselves to learning and the arts? (slaves do all the tasks in the empire)

    Chapters 3-4 ➣ Alexandria E (map 1)

    General Comprehension Questions

    Why does Archimedes go to Alexandria? (to attend the Museum—or University—established by Ptolemy, the first government-sponsored scientific institution, which paid for scientists to study)

    Why are Euclid, Archimedes, and Apollonius famous? (the three greatest mathematicians of the ancient world, all learned at the Museum)

    What is a machine? (any mechanical device that helps us do work, even a screw)

    What is work, scientifically speaking? (any movement) What is force? (a push or a pull)

    What is the difference between a tool, an engine or motor, and a generator? (a tool is a machine with no moving parts, an engine or motor changes one kind of energy into mechanical power that moves things, and a generator changes mechanical power into electrical power)

    Chapters 5-6 Tell the story of the word, “Eureka!” (King Hiero wanted to know if his new crown was pure gold, so he asked Archimedes, who puzzled for days; when he got into his bath, he realized that the water he displaced showed his density, and he ran through the streets naked shouting “Eureka! I have found it!”)

    How does a density test work? (a specific weight of gold will displace a certain amount of water; silver, a less dense metal, will displace more water with the same weight; each substance has its own specific density)

    Why does a ball of steel sink to the bottom of the ocean, but a steel ship can float? (a floating object displaces its own weight in water; a steel ball is too heavy for the water, but if the steel spreads itself out throughout much water, it floats)

    How could Archimedes predict when an eclipse would happen? (he built a model of the heavens that turned by water power; the planets rotated accurately)

    Chapters 7-10 What is pi and how does Archimedes find it? (the ratio between the diameter of a circle and its circumference; he

    Archimedes and the Door of Science

  • World History, Part 1 ♦ Reader Study Guide ♦ Theras and His Town ♦ 49

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    Theras and His Town

    Chapters I-VI ➣ Athens Q; Troy W; Delphi E; Olympia R; Hymettos

    Mountain T (map 1)

    General Comprehension Questions

    What is a pedagogue? (a slave who goes with an Athenian boy to school; the pedagogue accompanies the boy, carries the wax tablet [his writing pad], his stylus [his pencil], and lyre; the pedagogue also punishes the boy if necessary)

    How large are Athenian schools? (Athens has many small schools, with perhaps thirty students or less)

    What subjects do boys study? (they must learn to read and write, to play the lyre, and to sing the two great poems of Homer)

    What do boys do on the athletic field? (they run, wrestle, jump, and throw)

    How does an Athenian man spend his time? (none work in business; a man might own a farm or ships, but slaves do the labor, not he; Athenians instead work for the city. A man might be a judge, and a sponsor for a choir, for example. All men have to exercise every day, since all men are fighters and must be ready to protect the city at all times)

    Who are Harmodios and Aristogeiton? (two young men who lived under a tyrant who would not let the Athenians vote; these two young men hid swords in myrtle branches and killed the king during a festival; they were immediately killed by the king’s guard, but all Athens became free as a result)

    Chapters VII-XI Does Athens have any defense other than the men-fighters? (a wall around Athens protects the city)

    Who is the most important “person” in Athens? (Athena; all the Athenians believe in her, and trust that she loves Athens more than any other city)

    Are Athenian statues decorated? (they are painted with lifelike colors so they look alive)

    What does Phidias make? (an enormous statue of Athena, made of gold and ivory)

    What is the most beautiful building in Athens? (the Parthenon, which is still beautiful, even broken down and missing a roof)

    Chapters XII-XV ➣ Piraeus Y; Chios U; Ephesus I; Samos O; Miletus P

    (map 1)

    General Comprehension Questions

    What is Chios? (an island in the sea where slaves are bought and sold)

    When Pheidon goes to war, how is he dressed? (he wears a cuirass, a piece of armor to protect his chest and back; a short skirt like a kilt, made of leather covered with metal; metal leggings, and sandals; he carries a shield and wears a helmet with a horsehair crest)

    How does a trireme look? (it is long and narrow; near the waterline are portholes for men to row; above these is another row with more portholes, and above these is a third level; the three banks of oars all row at the same time)

    Chapters XVI-XVIII ➣ Sparta {; Aigaleos Hill }; Bay of Salamis q; Eleusis w;

    Megara e; Skironian Rocks r (map 1)

    General Comprehension Questions

    When the ship sinks, the farm fails, and her husband dies, what can Arethusa do? (nothing; Athenian women are not allowed to work; she must sit and rely on the care of her relatives)

    How is travel different for Athenians than for Spartans? (Athenians talk with each other and share stories, which makes the time go quickly; Spartans say nothing)

    What are the Skironian Rocks? (traditionally a hiding place for robbers; Skiron, the first robber, threw people off the rocks to his pet tortoise who would eat them; another robber, Procrustes, put his victims on a bed; if they are too tall, he would cut off the legs; if too short, he would pull the legs out; the hero Theseus had killed both men)

    Chapters XIX-XXII ➣ Corinth (Isthmus of Corinth) t; Gulf of Corinth y; Aegean

    Sea u; Tegea J; Taygetos Mountains K (map 1)

    ➣ Scotland Q (map 2)

    General Comprehension Questions

    Why does Theras not tell Hippias that Skyllis was asleep? (“everybody hates the teller of evil stories. Even those who want to hear the story hate him who tells”) Do you believe this? If you do, I think you will have better control of your tongue than most!

    Why do the Greeks desire to bury their dead? (because unburied dead roam the earth forever as ghosts, wishing they could rest)

  • Theras and His Town - Map 1

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  • World History, Part 1 ♦ Read-Aloud Study Guide ♦ The Trojan War ♦ 71

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    Part I, Chapter 1 Nature Studies Question

    What is a cuttlefish? (cuttlefish is a soft, boneless animal related to the squid. It is found in most seas except those surrounding the Americas. It usually lives on the sea bottom near the shore. The cuttlefish ranges in size from about 3 inches [8 centimeters] to about 5 feet [1.5 meters] long. Its oval body is commonly brown with crossbands and purple spots. It is brilliantly metallic in the sunlight and often changes color. The cuttlefish’s body is surrounded with a frilled fin. The cuttlefish has eight short arms and two long armlike tentacles that surround the mouth. Both arms and the tentacles have rows of hard and rough suckers. The tentacles can be pulled into pockets behind the eyes. The cuttlefish uses its arms to attach itself to objects. The cuttlefish can use its tentacles and arms to capture prey such as prawns, crabs, and fish. The cuttlefish has an internal shell called the cuttlebone. The broad cuttlebone is porous and chalky. It is often used in making toothpaste. The cuttlefish moves by using its fin or by forcing water from a funnellike organ on its backside. To hide from enemies, the cuttlefish can bury itself in the sand, camouflage itself, or darken the water by pouring out an inky substance. This substance contains the brown pigment called sepia. Ink made from sepia was widely used in ancient times [source: 2003 World Book])

    Comprehension Question

    Why does Paris choose Aphrodite? (he is too overawed by Hera, too simple for Athene, but understands love and beauty, so chooses Aphrodite’s gifts)

    Chapter 2 Geography Question

    Locate a map with various ancient locations: Troy in Asia, Menelaus’ Greece, and others in this book. (see www.geocities.com/tmartiac//thalassa /ancgreecemap.htm if you can’t find one)

    Comprehension Question

    Of what treacheries is the fleeing couple guilty? (Helen treacherously leaves her husband; Paris, a guest, robs his host)

    Critical Thinking Question

    Menelaus acknowledges that each man has a different gift, and Paris defends his as more divinely blessed because beauty and grace come only from the gods. What do you think of this argument?

    Chapter 3 ➣ Ithaca Q (map 1)

    Comprehension Question

    Was Helen the only cause of the Trojan War? (no—also, the Greeks disliked the commercial advantage of Troy and wished to gain supremacy)

    Narration Question

    Describe Palamedes’ shrewd scheme and why it was necessary.

    Chapter 4 Cultural Literacy Question

    Who are the Fates? (Fates were three goddesses who ruled people’s lives. According to Greek and Roman mythology, the goddesses spun and cut the thread of life. The Fates were usually described as stern, gloomy, elderly goddesses. But in ancient Greece, they were also worshiped sometimes as goddesses who helped with childbirth and a successful harvest [source: 2003 World Book])

    Chapter 5 Comprehension Question

    Why are the Greeks not outraged at Iphigenia’s death? (they think of their future glory, not the murder)

    Critical Thinking Question

    Compare Agamemnon’s sacrifice of Iphigenia with Abraham’s near sacrifice of Isaac (found in Genesis 22).

    Part II, Chapter 1 ➣ Thebe and the Pillars of Heracles (Hercules) W (map 1)

    Comprehension Question

    What is Cassandra’s gift and punishment? (she can foretell the future, but is never believed)

    Chapter 2 Comprehension Question

    How do Protesilaus’ parents think differently about time than Laodamia? (the parents know that time passes, though slowly; Laodamia thinks time will never pass)

    The Trojan War

  • The Trojan War - Map 1

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