world heritage sites in china

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  • WORLD HERITAGE

  • 4 2010 8

    911 704 180 27

    2011 6 41

    26 8 4

    3

    World Heritage World Cultural and Natural Heritage sites are masterpieces created

    by both human ancestors and Mother Nature and priceless assets for the whole

    mankind. In fact, an effective protection of the cultural and natural heritage is to

    conserve human civilization and the natural environment on which human beings

    subsist. World Heritage refers to any human priceless and irreplaceable asset

    nominated by the UNESCO and the World Heritage Committee, including cultural

    relics and natural sights of outstanding universal value for the whole mankind.

    Generally, the World Heritage sites are divided into four categories: cultural, natural

    and mixed properties, and cultural landscapes. As of August 2010, 911 properties

    around the globe had been inscribed into the World Heritage List, including 704

    cultural heritage sites (or cultural landscapes), 180 natural heritage sites, and 27

    mixed heritage sites. By June 2011, a total of 40 natural and cultural properties in

    China had been inscribed into the World Heritage List, including 26 cultural heritage

    sites, eight natural heritage sites, four mixed heritage sites, and three cultural

    landscapes. Presently, China is ranked third around the world in the number of World

    Heritage sites, only behind Italy and Spain.

  • 5456606466687074 72757678808485868890 5253

  • CONTENTS

    8 6 4 110121416202226 24283236384042444850

  • The Great Wall The Great Wall is a series of impressive military fortifications built originally to protect the northern

    borders of China against intrusions from nomadic tribes. The majority of the existing Great Wall was constructed during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), which stretches from Jiayuguan in the western province of Gansu to Shanhaiguan in the eastern province of Liaoning. Totally, it runs more than 10,000 li (a unit of length equal to 0.5 kilometers), hence its nickname the Long Wall of Ten Thousand Li. The Jiumenkou section on the water in Liaoning Province is also part of the World Heritage site. An important historic heritage of China and an architectural wonder around the world, the Great Wall is considered a symbol of the persistent and fortitudinous spirit of the Chinese nation. Former US President Richard Nixon ever praised that Only a great nation can build such a magnificent Great Wall.

    1987

    1

    THE GREAT WALL

    THE GREAT WALL

    The Ming Great Wall,Huairou.Beijing

  • 2

    Watchtower at the Jinshanling Great Wall

  • 3THE GREAT WALL

  • 15 600 24

    1925 72

    980 8700 ,

    Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing Dynasties in Beijing and Shenyang The Imperial Palace in Beijing, known

    as the Forbidden City in the Ming and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties, was first built in the 15th century. Over more than 600 years, it served as a dwelling place for 24 emperors. In 1925, it was converted into the Palace Museum, which now houses more than a million priceless cultural relics. Covering an area of 720,000 square meters, the Imperial Palace in Beijing consists of 980 buildings, with more than 8,700 rooms. The most representative and impressive structures include the Hall of Supreme Harmony, the Palace of Heavenly Purity, the Hall of Mental Cultivation, and the Imperial Garden, which feature yellow-glazed tiles, red walls, gilded doors, and marble balustrades. An architectural masterpiece of ancient China, it is now considered the largest, grandest and best-preserved ancient royal building complex across the world. As part of the Imperial Palaces of the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Imperial Palace in Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, inherit the traditional Chinese architectural techniques while integrating the architectural styles of the Han, Manchu, and Mongolian ethnic groups, and feature high historic and artistic value.

    1987 2004

    4

    IMPERIAL PALACES OF THE MING AND QING DYNASTIES IN BEIJING AND SHENYANG

    Hall of Supreme Harmony(Taihedian)

    Hall of Exalted Government(Chongzhengdian) Watchtower of the Forbidden City

    Interior of the Hall of Supreme Harmony

  • 5IMPERIAL PALACES OF THE MING AND QING DYNASTIES IN BEIJING AND SHENYANG

    Forbidden City

  • MAUSOLEUM OF THE FIRST QIN EMPEROR

    1987

    6

    Kneeling Terracotta Soldier,Pit 2 Bronze Chariot

  • 8

    400 56.25

    1974 1.5

    8000 1.8

    , 20

    Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor Situated in Lintong, Shaanxi Province, it is the royal mausoleum of Ying

    Zheng, the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty (221-207BC). The entire mausoleum covers nearly eight square kilometers and consists of an interior city and an exterior city. The tomb in the center resembles a tetragonal pyramid with a flat top and is nearly 100 meters high. It is the earliest and largest imperial mausoleum in China. Around the mausoleum are more than 400 auxiliary burial pits and tombs, which are distributed in the nearby area of 56.25 square kilometers. The major auxiliary pits include the Bronze Chariot Pits, the Horse Pits, the Rare Bird and Beast Pits, and the Terracotta Warrior and Horse Pits. Since 1974, three pits of terracotta warriors and horses have been discovered 1.5 kilometers east to the mausoleum, from which 8,000 terracotta figures, 100 chariots, and tens of thousands of weapons were unearthed. Those terracotta figures, each being about 1.8 meters in height, vary in postures and facial expressions, and bear testimony of the superb sculpture techniques of the Qin Dynasty. Their discovery stirred up considerable concern from around the world and is reputed as one of the greatest archeological findings of the 20th century.

    MAUSOLEUM OF THE FIRST QIN EMPEROR

    7 Pit 1 of the Terracotta Warriors and Horses

  • 25 5

    1600 366 492

    5 , 45000 2400 4000

    Mogao Caves The Mogao Caves, popularly known as the Thousand-Buddha Caves, lie on cliffs at the east foot of the Echoing-Sand Mountain, 25 kilometers southeast of Dunhuang City, Gansu Province. As outstanding representatives of the Dunhuang grotto art, the Mogao Caves consist of five stories and stretch about 1,600 meters from south to north. First constructed in 366, the caves underwent constant reconstructions and expansions over centuries, and have formed a diverse, impressive system of grottoes. Currently, there are preserved 492 grottoes and five wooden-structured buildings dating back to the Tang (618-907) and Song (960-1279) dynasties, as well as 45,000 square meters of murals, 2,400 colored sculptures, and 4,000 flying Apsaras (Buddhist fairies). The Mogao Caves, together with the Yungang Grottoes and the Longmen Grottoes, are known as one of the three major grotto clusters in China. The Mogao Caves are not only a comprehensive cultural heritage integrating architecture, painting, and sculpture, but also the largest and best-preserved treasure house of Buddhist art in the world.

    M0GAO CAVES

    1987

    8 Mogao Caves,Dunhuang

  • M0GAO CAVES

    9

    428 Cave 428

    158 The Nirvana of Sakyamuni ,Cave 158

  • 2000

    Mount Taishan Initially called Daishan or Daizong, Mount Taishan in the middle of Shandong Province got its

    current name during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC). It is noted for magnificent landscapes and profound history, as well as antiquated geological formations, picturesque scenery, ancient buildings, and changing weathers. An aggregation of all sorts of scenic spots, Mount Taishan is dubbed the head of the Five Sacred Mountains and the No.1 Mountain under Heaven. Due to its long history and profound culture, the mountain boasts abundant cultural relics. Currently, there are preserved more than 2,000 stone steles and carvings. The Tiankuang Hall in the Dai Temple at the foot of the mountain is ranked among Chinas three grandest halls, together with the Hall of Supreme Harmony in Beijing and the Dacheng Hall in Qufu. Since remote antiquity, Mount Taishan has received great pilgrimages. Many monarchs, including the First Qin Emperor, Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty (202BC-220), Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, and Emperor Taizu of the Song Dynasty, ever came to worship the mountain and construct temples. Over centuries, such scholars and poets as Confucius, Meng Ke, Li Bai, and Du Fu also came to worship and travel around the mountain, who left behind numerous stone carvings, poems and essays.

    MOUNT TAISHAN

    1987

    10

    Lingyan Temple

  • MOUNT TAISHAN

    11 Eighteen Bends

  • 1929

    Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian Located on the Longgu Hill at Zhoukoudian, Beijings Fangshan District, it was first discovered in 1929, when archeologists found some teeth, bones, and a skull of Homo sapiens that were later named Peking Man. There were also excavated various objects that Peking Men used in daily life and hunting, as well as remains of fire use. Consecutively, many specimens of Homo sapiens, stone utensils and fire-using remains were unearthed at the site. Moreover, in the caves on the hill were discovered Chinas oldest burial and ornamental objects. The Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian is one of the worlds most comprehensive and systemic Paleolithic sites with the richest human fossils and animal specimens.

    PEKING MAN SITE AT ZHOUKOUDIAN

    1987

    12

    Skull Cap of Peking Man

    Animal tooth fossil unearthed from the Ape-Man Cave

    Stone tools used by Peking Ape Man

    Ornaments used by the Upper Cave Man

  • PEKING MA