Work Analysis and Work Measurement!-FINAL

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<p>WORK ANALYSIS &amp; WORK MEASUREMENT1</p> <p>TOTAL SLIDES: 75</p> <p>SYNOPSIS2</p> <p>OBJECTIVE3</p> <p>y Work study is concerned with finding better ways of doing work</p> <p>and avoiding waste in all its forms. y The objective has three aspects. i. The most effective use of plant and equipment. ii. The most effective use of human work. iii.The evaluation of human work.</p> <p>AREAS OF WORK STUDY4</p> <p>Work analysis Method study Motion study</p> <p>Work measurement Time study</p> <p>METHOD STUDY5</p> <p>Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs.</p> <p>OBJECTIVES OF METHOD STUDY6</p> <p>Improvement of processes and procedures Improvement in the design of plant and equipment Improvement of layout Improvement in the use of men, materials and machines Economy in human effort and reduction of unnecessary fatigue Improvement in safety standards Development of better working environment. </p> <p>WHEN METHOD STUDY IS CONDUCTED:7</p> <p>y High operating cost y Heavy rejections y Excessive movement of materials and men y Production bottle necks y Quality problems y Poor working conditions y Excessive overtime y Poor delivery performance</p> <p>ADVANTAGES OF METHOD STUDY8</p> <p>Work simplification Improved method (cheaper and productive) Better quality product Improved layout Better material handling Better work flow Less fatigue to operator Shorter production time Job satisfaction</p> <p>BASIC PROCEDURE9</p> <p>Select Record Examine Develop Install Maintain</p> <p>SELECTING THE WORK10</p> <p>There are three factors that should be kept in mind when selecting a job. 1. Economic or cost-effective considerations. 2. Technical considerations. 3. Human considerations. 1. Economic considerations: It is obviously a waste of time to start or continue a long investigation if the economic importance of a job is small.</p> <p>OBVIOUS CHOICES FOR STUDY11</p> <p>y A. Key profit-generating or costly operations or ones with the</p> <p>largest scrap/waste rates.</p> <p>y B. Bottlenecks which are holding up other production operations,</p> <p>or lengthy operations that consume a great deal of time.</p> <p>y C. Operations involving repetitive work using a great deal of</p> <p>labor and ones that are likely to run for a long time.</p> <p>y D.</p> <p>Movements of material over long distances between workstations, those involving the use of a relatively large proportion of labor or which require repeated handling of material.</p> <p>PARETO ANALYSIS12</p> <p>One of the easiest techniques that could be used to identify key operations as listed in part (A) is the Pareto analysis (sometime also referred to as the ABC analysis of value analysis).</p> <p>13</p> <p>14</p> <p>SELECTION CONTu15</p> <p>2. Technical or technological considerations: One of the important considerations is the desire by management to acquire more advanced technology, i.e. in equipment or in processes. Therefore, management may want to computerize its office paperwork or its inventory system, or to introduce automation in the production operations. Before such steps are taken, a method study could point out the most important needs of the enterprise in this respect. The introduction of new technology should therefore constitute an important factor in the choice of methods of work to be investigated.</p> <p>SELECTION CONTu16</p> <p>3. Human considerations:y Certain operations are often a cause of dissatisfaction by workers. y They may bring on fatigue or monotony or may be unsafe to</p> <p>operate. y The level of satisfaction should point to a need for method study. In a similar fashion, a choice of a particular job for study may lead to anxiety or ill feeling. The suggestion given here is to leave it alone.</p> <p>RECORD THE FACTS17</p> <p>y The next step in the basic procedure, after selecting the work to</p> <p>be studied, is to record all the facts relating to the existing method. y The success of the whole procedure depends on the accuracy with which the facts are recorded, because they will provide the basis of both the critical examination and the development of the improved method. y Recording serves essentially as a basis for following analysis and examination. y Recording may be carried out in two phases: First, a rough sketch or charting of the job being studied to establish whether the recorded information is of use; Second, a more formal and accurate chart or diagram to include in a report or presentation.</p> <p>DIFFERENT RECORDING TECHNIQUES18</p> <p>TYPES</p> <p>RECORDING TECHNIQUESOutline process chart Operations process chart Flow process charts</p> <p>INFORMATION RECORDEDCovers only main operations and Inspections Includes operations, inspections and material inputs Includes sequence of operations, transportation, inspections, delays and storages. y For Material or product y For Man y For Machine Depicts the activities of both hands or limbs For more than one worker/ machine or equipment Simultaneous motion cycle chart . used for Very small cycle time operations .</p> <p>CHARTS</p> <p>Two handed process charts Multiple activity chart SIMO chart</p> <p>RECORDING TECHNIQUES CONTu19</p> <p>TYPES</p> <p>RECORDING TECHNIQUESFlow diagram</p> <p>INFORMATION RECORDEDActual paths followed by materials. Diagram drawn to scale Sting used to trace the path of materials or workmen in a scale plan or a Model. To measure distances traveled. Movement of hand obtained by exposing a photographic plate to the light emitted from the small bulbs attached to the operators fingers Modification of cycle graph in which recording is made using flash lights</p> <p>DIAGRAMS &amp; MODELS</p> <p>String diagram</p> <p>Cycle graph</p> <p>PHOTOGRAPHIC AIDSChrono-cycle graphs</p> <p>OUTLINE PROCESS CHART</p> <p>20</p> <p>DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES21</p> <p>y B1: Cutting the blade to required shape &amp;size from a metal y y y y</p> <p>y</p> <p>sheet. B2: Making the hole located in triangular positions at the border end of the blade. B3: Inspecting the exactness of the location of the holes using a template gauge with studs in the required triangular positions. F1: Cutting the plate to required shape &amp; size from a metal sheet. F2: Making the 3 holes located in triangular positions at the right hand end of the plate which are used to fix the fixing plate on the blade. F3: : Inspecting the exactness of the location of the holes using a template gauge with studs in the required triangular positions.</p> <p>ACTIVITIES CONT..22</p> <p>y F4: Making two holes located on the left hand side of the fixing y y y y y y</p> <p>plate which are used to mount it on the motor housing. F5:Inspecting the exactness of the locations of the two holes using a template gauge with studs in the required positions. A1: position the fixing plate in the required location on the table. A2:insert three bolts each with a washer in to three hole passing through fixing plate &amp; the blade. A3:insert a washer on the other end of each of the three bolts. A4:Fix a nut on each of the three bolts &amp; tighten it. A5:inpect the level of tightness.</p> <p>TWO HANDED PROCESS CHART</p> <p>23</p> <p>24</p> <p>MAN MACHINE CHART25</p> <p>EXAMINE26</p> <p>Examine critically: by using the questioning technique. The questioning technique is the means by which the critical examination is conducted, each activity being subjected in turn to a systematic and progressive series of questions. y The questioning sequence used follows a well-established pattern which examines:</p> <p>QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES27</p> <p>Present facts Purpose Method Sequence Place Person What is being done? How is it being done? When is it being done? Where is it being done? Who is doing?</p> <p>Alternatives What else could be done? How else could it be done? When else could it be done?</p> <p>Action What should be done? How should it be done? When should it be done?</p> <p>Where else could it Where should it be be done? done? Who else can do it? Who should do it?</p> <p>DEFINING THE IMPROVED METHOD28</p> <p>y The report should show:</p> <p>Relative costs in material, labour and overheads of the two methods, and savings expected. 2. The cost of installing the new method, including the cost of new equipment and of re-laying out shops or working areas 3. Executive actions required to implement the new method. y It should also give details regarding : 1. The tools and equipment to be used 2. A description of the method 3. A diagram of the work place layout, jigs/fixtures etc</p> <p>1.</p> <p>INSTALLING THE IMPROVED METHOD29</p> <p>1. Gaining acceptance of the change by the Management2. Gaining acceptance of the change by the workers 3. Maintaining close contact with the progress of the job until satisfied that it is running as intended</p> <p>MOTION STUDY30</p> <p> Analysis of basic hand, arm &amp; body movements of worker as</p> <p>they perform their work. Motion studies are performed to eliminate waste movements. Before any improvement in quality or quantity of output, any study of operations time, any scheduling of work or balancing of workload or any calculation of standard time, a study of the current and proposed method is required. Studies of overall factory flow or process is called macromotion studies, and additional studies of detail or operations is called micromotion studies,</p> <p>Motion studiesMacro motion Micro motion Memo motion</p> <p>31</p> <p>MICRO MOTION STUDIES32</p> <p>Micro motion study was originated by Frank B. Gilbreth One of the most effective forms of work analysis available for job improvement. It is an analysis technique making use of motion pictures (or videotape) taken at a constant and known speed. The film becomes a permanent record of both the method being used and the time consumed in doing the work.</p> <p>MICROMOTION ANALYSIS33</p> <p>Micromotion analysis is analysis of Therbligs that make up a repetitive task Each therblig represents time and energy spent by a worker to perform a task. If the task is repetitive, of relatively short duration, and will be performed many times, it may be appropriate to analyze the therbligs that make up the work cycle as part of the work design process.</p> <p>OBJECTIVES OF MICRO MOTION ANALYSIS 34A.</p> <p>Eliminate ineffective therbligs if possible Avoid holding objects with hand Use work holder Combine therbligs Perform right-hand and left-hand motions simultaneously Simplify overall method Reduce time for a motion, e.g., shorten distance</p> <p>B.</p> <p>C.</p> <p>D.</p> <p>E.</p> <p>THERBLIGS35</p> <p> Frank Gilbreth first to analyze and classify the basic motion</p> <p>elements Any work can be done by using a combination of 17 basic motions, called Therbligs.Therbligs</p> <p>Effective therbligs</p> <p>Ineffective therbligs</p> <p>CLASSIFICATION OF THERBLIGS36</p> <p>Effective therbligs: y Transport empty y Grasp y Transport loaded y Release load y Use y Assemble y Disassemble y Inspect y Rest</p> <p>Ineffective therbligs: y Hold y Pre-position y Position y Search y Select y Plan y Unavoidable delay y Avoidable delay</p> <p>EFFECTIVE &amp; INEFFECTIVE THERBLIGS37</p> <p>y Effective therbligs are those that directly advance the progress of</p> <p>the work. These can sometimes be shortened but it is rarely the case that they cannot be eliminated.y Ineffective therbligs do not directly advance the progress of the</p> <p>work and should try to be eliminated or combined with another therblig to shorten the operation.</p> <p>38</p> <p>39</p> <p>MEMOMOTION STUDIES40</p> <p> Memomotion study was originated by M.E. Mundel. Special form of micromotion study in which the motion pictures</p> <p>or videotape are taken at slow speeds. (Sixty and one hundred frames per minutes are most common)</p> <p>MACRO MOTION STUDY41</p> <p> Studies of overall factory flow or process is called macromotion</p> <p>studies. Any process can be studied by dividing it into process activity. Although each activity is different, depending on the product,</p> <p>there are five classes of activities that are included in all processes. Savings, may be found in the process by reorganizing activities.</p> <p>PROCESS CHART OPERATORS42</p> <p>OPERATORr</p> <p>OPERATION point of origination Operation Storage Transportation Delay</p> <p>O </p> <p>D</p> <p>PROCESS CHART</p> <p>43</p> <p>IMPROVED PROCESS CHART44</p> <p>THE PRINCIPLES OF MOTION ECONOMY45</p> <p> Objective: maximize efficiency and minimize worker</p> <p>fatigue Guidelines for work improvement</p> <p>Use of human body Arrangement of the work place Design of tools &amp; equipment</p> <p>A. USE OF HUMAN BODY46</p> <p>1. Design work to fully utilize both hands 2. The two hands should begin and end their motions at the same time 3. Hand and arm motions should be symmetrical and simultaneous 4. Design work to favor preferred hand 5. Workers two hands should not be idle at the same School time 6.Method should consist of smooth continuous curved motions rather than straight motions with abrupt changes indirection 7. Use momentum to facilitate task 8. Take advantage of gravity Dont oppose it</p> <p>USE OF HUMAN BODY CONT.47</p> <p>9. Method should achieve a natural rhythm of the motions involved 10. Minimize eye focus and travel 11. Use lowest classification of hand and arm motion (five classifications) 1) Finger 2) Finger and wrist 3) Finger, wrist, and forearm 4) Finger, wrist, forearm, and upper arm 5) Finger, wrist, forearm, upper arm, and shoulder 12. Design method to utilize feet and legs where appropriate</p> <p>B. ARRANGEMENT OF THE WORK PLACE48</p> <p>1. Definite and fixed stations should be provided for all tools and materials. 2. Gravity feed, bins and containers should be used to deliver the materials as close to the point of use as possible. 3. Tools, materials and controls should be located within the maximum working area. 4. Materials and tools should be arranged to permit the best sequence of motion. 5. Provision should be made for adequate lighting. 6. The colour of the workplace should contrast with that of the workplace to reduce eye fatigue.</p> <p>C. DESIGN OF TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT49</p> <p>1.The hands should be relieved of all work of 'holding the work piece where this could be done by fixture etc. 2.Two or more tools should be combined wherever possible 3.Levers, cross bars and hand wheels should be so placed that the operative could use them with the least change in body position and the greatest mechanical advantage.</p> <p>WORK MEASUREMENT50</p> <p>Work Measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a designed level of performance.</p> <p>TECHNIQUES51</p> <p>Stop watch time study</p> <p>Work sampling</p> <p>Work measurement Synthesis from standard data Predetermined standards</p> <p>PURPOSE OF WORK MEASUREMENT52</p> <p>1 .To find ineffective time in a process 2. To set standard for output level 3. To evaluate worker's performance 4. To plan work force needs. 5. To determine available capacity 6. To compare work methods 7. To facilitate operations scheduling 8. To establish wage incentive scheme</p> <p>OBJECTIVE OF TIME AND MOTION STUDY53</p> <p>The objective of the Time Study is to determine a normal or average time for a job, by using observers to record exactly how much time is being devoted to each task</p> <p>WHAT IS A TIME STANDARD54</p> <p>y The definition of a time standard is the time required to produce</p> <p>a...</p>