Woods Of Pakistan

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<ul><li>1.By Asif Shabir PARTAL KIKAR SHAROL SIMBAL DEODAR SHISHAM SAFEDA WALNUT MANGO SHAHTOOT CHIR POPLAR NEEM </li></ul><p>2. PARTAL Botanical Name : ABIES PINDROW AVAILIBILTY It is found natively in east Asia, Himalayas including Pakistan. In Pakistan it is available in hilly areas of murree, hazara, chitral &amp; etc. THE TREE It is a large, straight and evergreen tree. Leaves are needle like dark green. Flowers are monoecious (having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant). The sapwood and heartwood have no distinction. The wood is creamy white when first cut but turns to light brown to dark brownish with age. Wood is monoporous. Partal is very light and soft wood. It has low crushing strength (compressive strength) and bending strength( ability of wood beam to support a load for particular period of time). DURABILTY It is moderately durable wood only when used under cover. It cannot resist the attack of fungi or insects. Tangential View 3. WORKABILITY: It is easy to work with both hand and machine tools to an excellent finish, but needs extra care. FINISHING: It is easy to get an excellent shiny finish adopting the necessary finishing procedure. USES It can be used primary for making of boxes, packing cases, creates and for railway sleepers. It is used for making of gliders and aircraft parts. It can also be utilized for cheap furniture (indoor use), plywood (core), model making, light construction, cheap doors and windows. The Tree Leaves Bark 4. KIKAR Botanical Name : ACACIA NILOTICA AVAILABLILITY It is natively found in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Burma, Srilanka, Saudi Arabia &amp; India. In Pakistan it is available from plains of sindh, Balochistan, Punjab &amp; N.W.F.P. It is also cultivated as road side tree. THE TREE It is moderate sized, deciduous tree (plants which lose all or part of their foliage at certain times of the year). Flowers are small yellow in color. Sapwood is yellowish white and quite distinct from heartwood which is pale red. DURABILITY The wood is considered as highly durable. It is susceptible to the attack of bores. But it is resistant against the termites. SEASONING It seasons very well easily and at a slow to moderate rate. Whereas, the wood is stable in use. Tangential View 5. WORKABILITY It is very difficult to work on it even by using machines. The wood saws, planes with difficulty, as the blade dulls very soon. It presents severe blunting effects on the cutting tools. Good finishing results can be achieved by adopting the necessary finishing procedure. USES: It can be used primarily for heavy construction, Agricultural Implements, Wheels, Rafter &amp; Shingles and Sofa structures. The Tree Leaves Bark 6. Botanical Name: ALNUS NITIDA AVAILABLITY It is found natively in Himalayas including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet &amp; China. In Pakistan it is available from NWFP and from hilly areas. THE TREE It is a large, straight, deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, ovate in shape. Fruit is the form of cone &amp; nut and matures from November to December. WOOD Sapwood and heartwood is of almost the same color. Grains are straight and have medium fine &amp; even textured wood. Wood is very soft, light and is diffuse porous with distinct growth. STRENGTH PROPERTIES / DURABILITY The wood is low in crushing strength, blending stiffness, hardness and moderate in blending effect. The wood is considered low to moderately durable only if used under cover or indoors. It doesnt resist the insect attack. Tangential View 7. SEASONING It is fairly easy to season both in air and kiln without any difficulty. FINISHING It can be brought to an excellent finish very easily. USES It can be used primarily for light construction, plywood, boxes &amp; packing cases. It can also be utilized for light furniture and certain other parts of the furniture &amp; cabinets. Like shoe soles and domestic wooden ware. Leaves Bark 8. SIMBA LBotanical Name : BOMBAX CIEBA LINN AVAILABLITY It is widely distributted in Burma, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Nepal India &amp; Indonesia. In Pakistan it is available from Punjab, Sindh &amp; NWFP. THE TREE: It is a large, straight, fast growing, deciduous tree. Leaves are compound having 5-7 leaflets. Flowers are large and red in color. The tree has a fair resemblance with Cieba pentendra. WOOD Sapwood &amp; heartwood is of the same color. It has creamy white wood with yellowish tinge. Grains are straight having coarse texture. STRENGTH PROPERTIES: The wood is generally very light and soft. It is low in crushing strength very low in blending strength and hardness. DURABILITY The wood is considered as non-durable. It is readily attacked by insects and fungi. 9. SEASONING It is fairly easy to season in both air and kiln. It shows small shrinkage &amp; fairly stable in use. WORKABILITY It is very easy to work both with hand and machine tools. It shows small shrinkage and fairly stable in use. FINISHING It is fairly poor in finishing results using paint and varnish. USES It can be used primarily for plywood. It can also be utilized for model making, light construction, fuel, fishermans floats and life belts. Flowers Bark 10. Botanical Name : CEDRUS DEODARA AVAILABILTY It is natively found in western Himalayas including Pakistan,India,Nepal &amp; Tibet. In Pakistan it is available from hilly areas N.W.F.P, and Kashmir. THE TREE Deodar is the national tree of Pakistan and is an evergreen tree. Leaves are needle like &amp; flowers are monoecious. Seeds ripened from October to December. WOOD The sapwood and heartwood has no differentiation in color. The grains are straight and have fine, even textured wood. It has very distinct growth ring and is non porous wood. STRENGTH PROPERTIES Deodar shows the moderate properties of hardness and blending stiffness. However it is considered as the strongest of the conifers. DURABILITY The heartwood of the deodar is durable and show resistance against the attack of fungi. But sapwood is not durable. SEASONING It is fairly easy to season both in air and kiln without any difficulty of splitting or warping. 11. WORKABILITY It can be easily worked with hand and machine tools to an excellent finish. It saws, planes, bores, nails &amp; screws well. FINISHING It is slightly difficult to polish as it is high in oil contents. However a good finish can be achieved but takes a high polish. USES It can be used primarily for doors and windows and construction. It is very highly prized and well known for its stability and less movement. It can also be utilized for railway sleepers, beams, carriage and wagon work. It is not favored for fuel as it produces lot of smoke during burning. THE TREE LEAVES 12. Botanical Name : DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB AVAILABILITY It is natively found in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, India, Iraq &amp; Indonesia. In Pakistan it is available from Sindh,Punjab,Balochistan &amp; N.W.F.P. It is widely cultivated in artificial forests. THE TREE It is large and deciduous tree. Leaves are compounds and comprised of 3 to 5 leaflets, Flowers are yellowish white. Seeds ripened from November to December. WOOD It is a king Pakistani wood used for furniture &amp; cabinet making. Sapwood is clearly demarcated from the heartwood. Grains are interlocked and have medium fine to coarse texture. It is ring porous and is dull in luster. STRENGTH PROPERTIES Shisham is a strong wood. It has high in crushing strength, moderate in blending strength and hardness. DURABILITY It is highly durable wood . But sapwood is prone to be attacked by bores and fungi. 13. SEASONING It is fairly easy to season both in air and kiln at a slow to medium rate. It may exhibit slight surface checking and end splitting. WORKABILITY It is easy to work on it with hand and machine tools to an excellent finish. Some times mineral streaks are also present which make it difficult to work. FINISHING It is extremely easy to achieve an excellent, smooth shiny finish. USES It can be used primarily for cabinet making and furniture, veneer, joinery, plywood and in carpentry. It can also be utilized for agricultural implements, flooring and turning articles. THE TREE LEAVES BARK 14. Botanical Name : EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS AVAILABLITY It is natively found in Australia. From here it is spread to different countries including Pakistan, India, Spain, Portugal &amp; Egypt. In Pakistan it is available from plains, forests, and is cultivated on private land. THE TREE It is a large straight &amp; evergreen tree. Leaves are simple, lanceolate. Seeds ripened from September to October. WOOD Sapwood is quite distinct from heartwood. Grains are interlocked and wavy having medium coarse and even texture. Wood has gum canals. STRENGTH PROPERTIES It is fairly hard and strong wood. It has medium to high crushing strength, low to moderate in blending strength. DURABILITY It is moderately durable wood. Heartwood is extremely resistant to preservative treatment. Whereas sapwood is prone to insects. 15. SEASONING It is very difficult to season and requires very extra care as it may undergo severe collapse, surface checking. It present moderate to high shrinkage due to gum pockets. WORKABILITY It is moderately difficult to work with it due to interlocked and presence of gum pockets. FINISHING It can be brought to a good finish adopting the necessary finishing procedure but takes a high polish. USES It can be used primarily for heavy construction, pulp &amp; paper, for flooring &amp; for fiber &amp; particle Board manufacturing. It can also be utilized for ship building, as a mining timber, charcoal, fuel and for furniture also. THE TREE LEAVES 16. Botanical Name : JUGLANS REGIA AVAILABLITY It is found in Asia &amp; Europe including Pakistan, Nepal, China, UK &amp; Bosnia. In Pakistan it is available from forests of N.W.F.P &amp; Azad Kashmir including kaghan. TREE It is large, straight and deciduous tree. Leaves are compound having 5-9 leaflets. Flowers are monoecious. Fruit an edible nut, oblong and about 5cm in length. WOOD Sapwood is grayish white while heartwood is grayish brown. Grains are straight and have medium fine. It is semi ring porous. STRENGTH PROPERTIES It is moderate in crushing strength, bending strength, hardness and low in bending stiffness. DURABILITY It is moderately durable, but the sapwood may undergo attack from wood bores. SEASONING Special should be taken while its seasoning. Fast drying may develop into end cracks. 17. WORKABILITY It is very easy to work both with hand and machine tools. It has moderate blunting effects on the cutting edges. FINISHING It can be brought to an excellent finish by adopting the necessary finishing process. USES It can be used primarily for cabinet making, carving, furniture and Riffle butts and Gun Stocks. It is very highly prized for these purposes. THE TREE LEAVES BARK 18. Botanical Name : MANGIFERA INDICA AVAILABLITY It is natively found Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan and Thailand. In Pakistan it is available from the dry and hotter plains of sindh and Punjab. THE TREE It is a large, straight and evergreen tree. The leaves are simple &amp; flowers are minute. Fruit is freshly drupe having one seed. Seeds ripened from may to June. WOOD The sapwood and heartwood have no distinction and of same color. It has medium fine to coarse texture. Wood is lustrous, diffuse porous. STRENGTH PROPERTIES Mango is not a very strong wood. DURABILTY It is moderately durable wood only when used under cover. It cannot resist the attack of fungi &amp; wood destroying insects. 19. SEASONING It can be seasoned easily both in air and kiln at a moderate temperature. It warps slightly. WORKABILTY It is very easy to work with hand and machine tools. It is easy to saw, plane, bore, mortise, sand, glue, nail and screws. FINISHING It can be brought to a good finish adopting the necessary finishing procedure. USES It can be primarily used for boat building, commercial plywood, veneer and musical instruments. It can also be utilized for cheap furniture (indoor use). THE TREE LEAVES BARK 20. Botanical Name : MORUS ALBA AVAILABILTY It is found in Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Japan and Iran. In Pakistan it is available from sindh, Punjab, N.W.F.P and northern areas. THE TREE It is a medium sized, deciduous tree. Leaves are simple and flowers are monoecious. Fruit is berry, edible, ripened from march to June. WOOD Sapwood is clearly demarcated from heartwood. Grains are straight and have moderately coarse and uneven texture. Wood is ring porous and lustrous. STRENGTH PROPERTIES The wood is moderately strong. It has moderate values of crushing strength, bending strength stiffness and hardness. It is good in shock resistance ability. SEASONING It is very easy to season both in air as well as in kiln. However it may develop slight twisting or warping. 21. DURABILTY It is moderately durable to durable wood when used indoors. WORKABILTY It is fairly easy to work both with hand and machine tools to an excellent finish. It is also good for steam bending. FINISHING It can be brought to an excellent shiny finish quite easily. USES It can be used primarily for sports goods (Hockey, Tennis, Badminton &amp; squash) and dowels. It can be utilized for camp furniture, bent wood articles and bobbins. 22. Botanical Name : PINUS ROXBURGHII AVAILABILTY It is natively found in Himalayas including Pakistan, Afghanistan, India &amp; Bhutan. In Pakistan it is available from hilly areas of murree, Kashmir, hazara, malakand, dir and manshera. THE TREE It is a large, straight and evergreen tree. It has narrow rounded crown. The leaves are needle like and fruit is a cone. Seeds ripened from September to October. WOOD The sapwood is clearly distinct from heartwood. The grains are straight to spiral. Texture is coarse to medium fine and uneven. Wood is non porous and it has very distinct growth rings. STRENGTH PROPERTIES The wood is fairly heavy and is moderately strong. It has moderate in crushing strength, bending strength and hardness. DURABILITY Chir is a durable wood when used under cover. It is fairly easy to treat it with the preservatives. 23. SEASONING It is fairly easy to season both in air and kiln and it does not present any difficulty. WORKABILITY It is very easy to moderate in working with hand and machines tools. The wood bores, molds, sands, glues, nails and screws well. FINISHING It is fairly difficult to finish it due to the presence of fair amount of resin. USES It can be primarily used for construction, packing cases and boxes, for transmission poles &amp; railway sleepers. It can be utilized for cheap furniture, house fitments, shingles and fuel. 24. POPLA RBotanical Name : POPULUS CILIATE AVAILABILTY It is found in Asia &amp; Northern Africa including Russia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Spain, China, India, Srilanka, Iraq &amp; Iran. In Pakistan it is available from forests and farmlands of sindh...</p>